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Abstract

Archaeological research in the area of the chateau park uncovered the relic of the Gothic church of St. Elisabeth, dated to the second half of the 13th century. It is a single-nave building with a rectangular finish (length 25 m, boat width 13 m, presbytery width 10.5 m). The church probably had an older predecessor - a wooden structure on a stone foundation, dating from the mid-13th century. At the same time, the church site was a burial place: a grave of a young woman and a 1.5-year-old child, dated 13th/14th century were found outside the presbytery wall. In the presbytery, there were 3 graves of men dating back to the 14th century. It is very likely that these are the Lords of the Wallenstein family. Archaeological research in graves in the Church of St. Elisabeth unearthed a small collection of animal bone remains. The occurrence of bones of young and mature cattle and domestic fowls, which are abundant in the archaeozoological assemblage, indicates the prevailing meat consumption of these animals. The butchering marks on their bones document removal of meat from the carcasses.

szkieletowym z X/XI – XI wieku w miejscowości Sowinki, gm. Mosina, woj. poznańskie, stanowisko 23A. Preliminary results of archaeological research carried out at the early medieval skeletal cemetery from 10/11th-11th cent. at Sowinki, Mosina commune, Greater Poland province, site 23A, Greater Poland Archaeological Reports , v. 1. Wielkopolskie Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 1: 83–102, I SBN 83–901011–0-6 (in Polish). Krzyszowski A 1992 Wstępne wyniki badań archeologicznych na wczesnośredniowiecznym cmentarzysku szkieletowym z X/XI – XI wieku w miejscowości Sowinki, gm

Abstract

Periods of intense human impact on the relief and lithology of the area of the Smólsk site were recorded during geoarchaeological research accompanying archaeological field work. The phases of occupation of the area are known in detail from the results of the large-scale archaeological research of the site. The slope deposits with buried soils were recorded at the site area and researched in detail with the use of sedimentological, geochemical and micromorphological analyses. Beside geochronological deterioration, the chronology of the artefacts found in layers played an important role in the strict recognition of the age of deposits. The lower part of the studied slope cover is constituted by deluvium and the upper part by tillage diamicton. The origin and the development of the slope deposits are correlated with the phases of an intense prehistoric human impact as defined by the archaeological research. Four main phases of acceleration of slope processes were documented at the site and date to the Early Neolithic, the Middle Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age.

Abstract

The former town of Wiślica is located in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in the Busko district. Currently, it is a peripheral centre, whose origins date back to the early medieval period. Several settlement elements from that period have survived in Wiślica (relics of the Romanesque church of St. Nicholas; relics of the church of the Holy Spirit; relics of the church of St. Martin; the archaeological-architectonic relics “Regia”; relics of the 1st and 2nd Romanesque church and a hill fort), which constituted an early-medieval agglomeration in this area at the time. During the high Middle Ages the agglomeration acquired a regular urban the layout (9-square model) of a chartered town. In this article, the authors try to present the spatial development of Wiślica during the Middle Ages, on the basis of their own analyses and findings resulting from archaeological research conducted in the past.

Abstract

An orientation survey of mostly the author’s own results of pollen analyses of medieval sediments from archaeological sites in the Czech Republic is presented. The aim of the several-year-long cooperation with archaeologists was to find out whether, and to what extent, the results of pollen analysis are able to specify more exactly the outcomes of archaeological research. Existing pollen-analytical results confirmed their potential to contribute to interdisciplinary archaeological-archaeobotanical research. From a pollen-analytical perspective it was possible to distinguish early medieval material from high medieval material, particularly in the area of larger medieval towns. Selected finds of palynomorphs (pollen grains, spores and Non-Pollen-Palynomorphs) are mentioned in more detail in the chapters “Botany and pharmacy”, “Hygiene and social situation”, “Problems of the age, function and/or disappearance of some archaeological features and situations” and “Pollen analysis and history”.

Abstract

The archaeological research conducted during the last two decades at the Judean Shephelah testifies for one of the most turbulent regions in the land of Israel during the Late Bronze Age. This stands in contrast to the scarce historical record that relates to it. The geographic region of Ramat Bet Shemesh encompasses important information about socio-political relations between the small rural settlements and hamlets and the city-states that dominated the area from the west. Advanced GIS modelling is one of the main research tools that enables us to reconstruct various aspects of these interactions. In this paper, the results of viewshed analyses are presented, suggesting that these interactions are defined, among other things, by a solidarity between small rural occupations that resist territorial rigid inner division of the landscape.

Abstract

Modern technology affects the development of the humanities, including the most traditional of the disciplines such as classical archaeology. We are looking for an answer to the question of whether high-tech could completely replace the basic tools without which we would not even imagine archaeology. Could pencil and paper completely disappear from the trench? We tested the principles regarding paperless archaeology on the exemplary research of the deserted Castrum Novum Roman Colony located in central Italy. The colony was founded in the 3rd century BC and disappeared in the 5th century AD. The discovery of the city occurred in the 18th century when the Pope decided to support the first excavations. Especially unique findings of sculptures became a feature of the Vatican Museums. After that the city was again forgotten. Only in the second half of the 20th century, have we managed to re-locate Castrum Novum. This resulted in the need for modern systematic archaeological research. Currently an extraordinary collaboration is bringing interesting discoveries and new perspectives for the Italian, the French and the Czech archaeologists.

Abstract

The region of the Lubusz Lakeland in western Poland where there are a lot of subglacial channels provides opportunity for multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. None of them has not been the object of a specific study. The developmental history of the palaeolakes and their vicinity in the subglacial trough Jordanowo-Niesulice, spanning the Late Glacial and beginning of the Holocene, was investigated using geological research, lithological and geomorphological analysis, geochemical composition, palynological and archaeological research, OSL and AMS-radiocarbon dating. Geological research shows varied morphology of subglacial channel where at least two different reservoirs functioned in the end of the Last Glacial period and at the beginning of the Holocene. Mostly during the Bølling-Allerød interval and at the beginning of the Younger Dryas there took place melting of buried ice-blocks which preserved the analysied course of the Jordanowo-Niesulice trough. The level of water, and especially depth of reservoirs underwent also changes. Palynological analysis shows very diversified course of the Allerød interval.

Abstract

The sensitive, partly fixed dune areas are good indicators of alteration, since they react rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Due to the climate changes, especially the increased aridity during the Holocene, many blown sand areas became active. Later, humanity had increasing impact of on its environment, thus sand movements occurred due to anthropogenic activities. Aeolian activities were identified not only in the historical times but also a few decades ago, when the moving sand caused significant problems on surfaces becoming bare. The present work will provide good evidence on sand movement in historical times caused by human impact on the environment with the help of OSL dating and archaeological research in the vicinity of the town of Apostag, which is located on the largest blown-sand area of Hungary on the Danube-Tisza Interfluve. The aims of the research were to identify the ethnical groups and their possible activities; to map the geomorphology of the study area; to determine the periods of aeolian activity; to assign the possible types of human activities in connection with climatic changes enabling aeolian activity.

Literature Anderson, Julie R. – Salah Mohamed Ahmed – Sweek, Tracey 2012 Meroitic Building Techniques: a few observations from Dangeil. Sudan & Nubia. The Sudan Archaeological Research Society Bulletin No. 16, pp. 72–79. Hinkel, Friedrich W. – Sievertsen, Uwe 2002 The Archaeological Map of Sudan . Supplement IV. Die Royal City von Meroe und die repräsentative Profanarchitektur in Kusch . Berlin. Onderka, Pavel 2016 Wad Ben Naga Report I: An Introduction to the Site . Praha. Onderka, Pavel – Vrtal, Vlastimil – Gatzsche, Alexander 2015 “Preliminary