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The M’zab valley is a hyper arid region of average rainfall not exceeding 100 mm per year. However, the rare floods that occur in M’zab River drain large volumes of surface water. Thanks to the genius of the local population, traditional dams were made for artificial recharge of groundwater. Grace of traditional wells drilled in the valley, farmers irrigate their palm groves and gardens. However, since more than half a century, the contribution of deep drilling for the exploitation of the aquifer of the Continental Intercalary posed environmental problems. On the basis of investigations and surveys of the local population during the years 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, it appears that these modern techniques in water catchment caused harmful consequences to the region like the rising of water consumption, pollution of groundwater and soil salinity. Solutions and recommendations are outlined in this article.
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The article presents the results of research, conducted in central Poland, where agriculture is the dominant type of land use. This activity is considered as a common potential hazard to groundwater quality because of the use of nitrate fertilizers, especially for small groundwater intakes used for the purpose of rural water supply. For this kind of intake seven scenarios of groundwater quality hazard were elaborated based on the results of the hydrodynamic modelling research in this area including the following: calculation of volume and time of leakage through the aquitard formations to the main useful aquifer, verification of the indirect protection zone and definition of the size of the well capture zone. The scenarios considered the current groundwater quality hazard as well as changes in agricultural land use or changes in fertilizer doses needed to decrease groundwater hazard by nitrates in the intake.