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In studies of individual organisation levels of organisms, the requirement of hollistic expression of structure and function is traditional despite the fact that structural direction prevails in studies. Less attention is paid to the place where function activity occurs in connection with the structure. This place is the surface - the medium where physical, chemical, biological and synergic processes interact. These surfaces are called ecologically active surfaces (EAS). From this standpoint, the surface is a place for energy exchange, which appears as mean studies of function and structural properties of the biological object.

The quantification of these areas taking into account the functional activities - (developed surface, the functional characteristics) to the desktop, or to the volume is the methodological starting point in the assessment of the country, or of its componens after the assessment of the energy potential of the environment. This ratio can be considered as the degree of heterogeneity of the conditions after taking into account the gradient of the environment.

We have achieved partial results related to EAS during the solution of tasks connected with the environmental evaluation of biotic components of a landscape, mainly during the investigation of aquatic biotopes, which are demonstrated on some examples.

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, Trichoptera) v regulovaném segmentu řeky Křemelné (ˇumava, ČR).- Aktuality ˇumavského výzkumu, Srní 2.-4. dubna 2001: 168-171. Soldán T., Zahrádková S., Heleˇic J., Duˇek L. & Landa V. (1998) Distributional and Quantitative Patterns of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera in the Czech Republic: A Possibility of Detection of Long-term Changes of Aquatic Biotopes. Folia Facultatis Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Masarykianae Brunensis, Brno, 98, 305 pp. Sowa R. (1966): Brachyptera starmachi sp. n., plécoptère nouvellement trouve des Carpathes.- Bulletin de Lacademie Polonaise

W. Bioanalityka w ocenie zanieczyszczenia środowiska. Gdańsk: CEEAM; 2004. [70] Jamnická G, Hrivnák R, Oťaheľová H, Skoršepa M, Valachovič M. Heavy metals content in aquatic plant species from some aquatic biotopes in Slovakia. Proc 36th Internat Conf of IAD. Wien: Austrian Committee Danube Research/IAD. 2006:336-370. [71] Kähkönen MA, Pantsar-Kallio M, Manninen PKG. Analysing heavy metal concentrations in the different parts of Elodea canadensis and surface sediment with PCA in two boreal lakes in Southern Finland. Chemosphere. 1997;35(11):2645-2656. PII:S0045