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elicitation of Hypericum perforatum L. cell suspensions and effects on the production of phenylpropanoids and naphtodianthrones. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 89, 1–13. Grieve, M., 1931: A Modern Herbal, first published, Jonathon Cape London. Hartmann, H. T., Kester, D. E., Davies, F. T., Geneve, R., 2010: Hartmann & Kester's plant propagation. Principles and practices. PH Professional Business, Prentice Hall, Boston. Hillman, J., 1984: Apical dominance. In: Willkins, M. (eds.), Hormonal plant physiology, 127–148. Pittman, London. Hosoki, T., Nojima, S., 2004


In 2000-2003, studies were conducted in the Felin Experimental Station at the University of Agriculture in Lublin to evaluate the impact of BA + GA3 2.2% (Arbolin 036 SL) and BA + GA4+7 2.2% and 3.75% (Promalin 3.6 SL) in the form of lanolin paste on the increase of the number of lateral shoots in maiden apple trees of the ‘Šampion’ and ‘Jonica’ cultivars. The growth regulators were found to have a beneficial effect on the branching ability of the maidens of the studied cultivars. ‘Jonica’ showed weaker apical dominance than ‘Šampion’. Young ‘Jonica’ trees had more lateral shoots of greater length than the ‘Šampion’ maidens.


The architecture of the tejocote (pronounciation: tehocote) - a Mexican fruit trees is described. There is a great morphological diversity among the tejocote clones growing in Germplasm Bank of the Autonomic University of Chapingo, Mexico. The common character of all hawthorns in this bank is that the inflorescence axis dies after shedding the reproductive parts (flowers or fruits) but remains on the tree, and the growth continues from the bud situated below the dead part. The growth and ramification habit were described as long shoots showing marked apical dominance and as the complex of shoots showing week apical dominance. The non-pruned trees of tejocote clones used as fruit trees form strong natural crown. The architecture of it is similar to the “Troll’s model” of Hallé and Oldeman (1970). Metamorphosis and reiteration are relatively frequent. The inflorescence structure was described, as well as the types of thorns in clones, which have thorns. Tejocote hawthorn may probably be an interesting fruit tree for countries with warm climate and a long dry period. It is also well adapted to shallow calcareous soils.


One-year-old Malus domestica Borkh. ‘Boskoop’ and ‘Mutsu’ nursery trees on M.9 rootstock were treated with foliar sprays of different BA + GA3 mixtures (450 + 450 mg dm-3 or 780 + 120 mg dm-3) or BA + GA4+7 combinations (450 + 450 or 330 + 570 mg dm-3). Both cultivars showed strong apical dominance; however, increased branching potential was observed following the use of exogenous growth regulators. All of the investigated branching agents revealed a high effectiveness, yet only after one treatment. Environmental factors played a major role in the induction of sylleptic shoot formation, especially in the case of ‘Boskoop’. In the case of ‘Boskoop’, the branching effect was correlated with several vegetative growth properties (tree height, trunk diameter), while for ‘Mutsu’, a different branching pattern was found with no correlations ascertained. No tree injuries were observed following the use of a chemical branching agent.

three pruning treatments. HORT. SCI. 146: 287-292. Marini R.P. 1985. Vegetative growth, field and fruit quality of peach as influenced by dormant pruning, summer pruning and summer topping. J. AMER. SOC. HORT. SCI. 110: 133-139. McIntyre G.J. 1964. Mechanism of apical dominance in plants. NATURE. 203: 1190-1191. Mika A. 1986. Physiological responses of fruit trees to pruning. HORT. REVIEW. 8: 339-378. Miller S.S. 1987. Summer pruning affects fruit quality and light penetration in young peach trees. HORTSCIENCE. 22: 390-393. Myers S.C. 1993. Preharvest watersprout

References Aloni R., Aloni E., Langhans M., Ullrich Cl., 2006. Role of cytokinin and auxin in shaping root architecture: regulating vascular differentiation, lateral root initiation, root apical dominance and root gravitropism. Ann. Bot. 97: 883-893. Arteca R.N., 1996. Plant growth substances: principles and applications. Chapter 5: Rooting. Chapman & Hall 115 Fifty Avenue, New York: 127-147. Biddington N.L., D earman A.S., 1982. The involvement of the root apex and cytokinins in the control of lateral root emergence in lettuce seedlings. Plant Growth Regulat. 1

systems of nine tropical tree species. Heredity 67 : 167–174. M urawski , D. A. and J. L. H amrick (1992): The mating system of Cavanillesia platanifolia under extremes of flowering tree density: a test of predictions. Biotropica 24 : 99–101. N avarro , C. M. and G. H ernández (2004): Progeny test analysis and population differentiation of Mesoamerican mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla ). Agronomía Costarricense 28 : 37–51. N ewton , A. C., J. P. C ornelius , F. M esén and R. R. B. L eakey (1995): Genetic variation in apical dominance of Cedrela odorata

References Asghari F., Hossienil B., Hassani A., Shirzad H. 2012. Effect of explants source and different hormonal combinations on direct regeneration of basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.). Aust. J. Agric. Eng. 3: 12-17. Bond S., Alderson P.G. 1993. The influence of apical dominance on in vitro multiplication of the rhizome of Alstroemeria. J. Hort. Sci. 68: 905-910. Chiari A., Bridgen M.P. 2000. Rhizome splitting: a new micropropagation technique to increase in vitro propagule yield in Alstroemeria. Plant Cell Tiss.Org. Cult. 62: 39-46. Fay M.F., Chase M

, 10, 13–18. Svennson B.M., Callaghan T.V. 1988a. Small-scale vegetation pattern related to the growth of Lycopodium annotinum and variations in its micro-environment. Vegetatio , 76, 167–177. Svennson B.M., Callaghan T.V. 1988b. Apical dominance and the simulations of metapopulation dynamics in Lycopodium annotinum . Oikos , 51, 331–342. Szafer W., Kulczyński S., Pawłowski B. 1988. Rośliny Polskie [Flora of Poland]. PWN, Warszawa. Śliwińska-Wyrzychowska A., Bogdanowicz M. 2012. Selected aspects of Lycopodium annotinum L. sporulation. Ecological Questions

trait locus mapping, Genetics , 176 , 1223--1236. Doebley, J., Stec, A., Hubbard, L. (1997). The evolution of apical dominance in maize. Nature , 386 , 485--488. Clark, R.M., Wagler, T.N., Quijada, P., Doebley, J. (2006). A distant upstream enhancer at the maize domestication gene tb1 has pleiotropic effects on plant and inflorescent architecture. Nat. Genet. , 38 , 594--597. Ward, S.P., Leyser, O., (2004). Shoot branching. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. , 7 , 73--78. Greb, T., Clarenz, O., Schafer, E., Muller, D., Herrero, R. Schmitz, G., Theres, K. (2003