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.A., Schroter R.C., Kelly F.J.: Comparison of the antioxidant status in tracheal and bronchoalveolar epithelial lining fluids in recurrent airway obstruction. Equine Vet J 2006, 38 , 417-422. 5. Delguste C., De Moffarts B., Kirschvink N., Art T., Pincemail J., Defraigne J.O., Amory H., Lekeux P.: Change in blood antioxidant status of horses moved from a stable following diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease. Can Vet J 2007, 48 , 1165-1167. 6. Dimock A.N., Siciliano P.D., McIlwraith C.W.: Evidence supporting an increased presence of reactive oxygen species in the diseased

, Picardo M. Antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation and skin diseases. What’s new. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2003; 17: 663–9. 10. Capaccio P, Pignataro L, Gaini LM, Sigismund PE, Novembrino C, De Giuseppe R, et al. Unbalanced oxidative status in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2012; 269: 449–53. 11. Cokluk E, Sekeroglu MR, Aslan M, Balahoroglu R, Bilgili SG, Huyut Z. Determining oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with genital warts. Redox Rep 2015; 20: 210–4. 12. Motor S, Ozturk S, Ozcan O, Gurpinar AB, Can Y, Yuksel R

with stable decline in serum albumin in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Intern., 65: 1408-1415. Kim M.Y., Cheong S.H., Lee J.H., Kim M.J., Sok D.E., Kim M.R. (2010). Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fedahigh-cholesterol diet. J. Med. Food, 13: 420-426. Lawrence R.A., Burk R.F. (1978). Species, tissues and subcellular distribution of non-selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase activity. J. Nutr., 108: 211-215. Lee D.H., Blomhoff R., Jacobs D.R. (2004). Is serum gamma glutamyltransferaseamarker of oxidative stress? Review

. Cao G, Booth SL, Sadowski JA, Prior RL. Increases in human plasma antioxidant capacity after consumption of controlled diets high in fruit and vegetables. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998; 68:1081-7. 18. Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1967; 70: 158. 19. Oyanagui Y. Reevaluation of assay methods and establishment of kit for superoxide dismutase activity. Anal. Biochem. 1984; 142(2): 290-6. 20. Mitrevky A et al. Total antioxidant status and superoxide dismutase

, Gopinathan V, Milner A: A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clin Sci (Lond) 1993, 84:407-412. 17. Girotti S, Fini F, Ferri E, Budini R, Piazzi S, Cantagalli D: Determination of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes by a chemiluminescent assay. Talanta 2000, 51:685-692. 18. Rubio CP, Hernández-Ruiz J, Martinez-Subiela S, Tvarijonaviciute A, Ceron JJ. Spectrophotometric assays for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in dog serum: an update. BMC Vet Res 2016:12(1):166, DOI . 10.1186/s

Abstract

Limited studies have assessed the toxic effect of sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of leachate (mixture of metals) in mammalian kidney. The sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of mature male Wistar-strain albino rats (200-220 g) were given by oral administration with leachate from Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling industry (EOMABRIL) for period of 7 and 60 days respectively, at different concentrations (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). This was to evaluate its toxic effects on male renal functions using biomarkers of oxidative stress and nephro-cellular damage. Control groups were treated equally, but given distilled water instead of the leachate. All the groups were fed with the same standard food and had free access to drinking water. Following the exposure, results showed that the treatment induced systemic toxicity at the doses tested by causing a significant (p<0.05) alteration in enzymatic antioxidantscatalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the kidneys which resulted into elevated levels of malonaldehyde (MDA). Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were found to be significantly (p<0.05) depleted relative to the control group. Considerable renal cortical congestion and numerous tubules with protein casts were observed in the lumen of EOMABRIL-treated rats. These findings conclude that possible mechanism by which EOMABRIL at the investigated concentrations elicits nephrotoxicity could be linked to the individual, additive, synergistic or antagonistic interactions of this mixture of metals with the renal bio-molecules, alteration of kidney detoxifying enzymes and necrosis of nephritic tubular epithelial cells.

, Koracevic G, Djordjevic V, Andrejevic S, Cosic V. Method for measurements of antioxidant activity in human fluids. J Clin Pathol. 2001;54:356-361. doi:10.1136/jcp.54.5.356 PMID:11328833. Nims RW, Cook JC, Krishna MC et al. Colorimetric assays for nitric oxide and nitrogen oxide species formed from nitric oxide stock solutions and donor compounds. Methods Enzymol. 1996;268:93-105. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(96)68012-4 PMID:8782576. Taysi S, Demircan B, Akdeniz N, Atasoy M, Sari A. Oxidant/antioxidant status in men with Behçet's disease. Clin Rheumatol. 2007

, et al. Oxidatively damaged DNA/oxidative stress in children with celiac disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010; 19: 1960–5. 15. Stojiljkovic V, Todorovic A, Pejic S, Kasapovic J, Saicic ZS, Radlovic N, et al. Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in small intestinal mucosa of children with celiac disease. Clin Biochem 2009; 42: 1431–7. 16. Rothem L, Hartman C, Dahan A, Lachter J, Eliakim R, Shamir R. Paraoxonases are associated with intestinal inflammatory diseases and intracellularly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. Free Radic Biol Med 2007; 43

selenium supplements on growth performance, antioxidant status and immune parameters in Ross 308 broiler chickens. Brit. Poultry Sci., 59, 1: 81-91. Bonetti G., Tedeschi P. Meca G., BertelliD., Mañes J., Barandolini V., Maietti A. (2016). In vitro bioaccessibility, transepithelial transport and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L. phenolic compounds in nettle based food products. Food Funct., 7: 4222-4230. Cao F.L., Zhang X.H., Yu W.W., Zhao L.G., Wang T. (2012). Effect of feeding fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves on growth performance, meat quality, and lipid

induced by hexavalent chromium in Sprague-Dawley rats. Environ. Toxicol., 24, 66-73. 26. Pidaran, M., Leelavinothan, P., 2007: Influence of tetrahydrocurcumin on erythrocyte membrane bound enzymes and antioxidant status in experimental Type 2 diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113, 479-486. 27. Reitmann, S., Frankel, S., 1957: Colorimetric method for the determination of serum transaminase activity. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 28, 56-68. 28. Rotruck, J. T., Pope, A. L., Ganther, H. E., Swanson, A. B., Hoekstra, W. G., 1973: Selenium: Biochemical role as a component of