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MDA concentration and antioxidant enzyme activity. Material and Methods Preparation of oil samples Rapeseed oil and olive oil were purchased from a local supermarket. For oil oxidation, 1 L of the oil was heated to 180ºC for six hours (mixed, with air access). The extent of oxidation was determined by the peroxide (PV) and iodine (JV) values as suggested by the Polish Committee for Standardisation ( 15 ) and by a chromatographic method to measure the content of fatty acids (FA) ( 26 ). Animals The study was conducted under the guidelines of the Animal Care


Fenpropathrin (FEN) was administered intraperitoneally in doses of 2.38 mg/kg, 5.9 5mg/kg, or 11.9 mg/kg b.w. to mice for 28 consecutive days. FEN did not significantly affect the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT) in the sera. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly elevated in the liver after a 28-d exposure to moderate or highest doses of the pesticide. These results demonstrate that the 28-day exposure to FEN leads to an up-regulation of expression of antioxidant enzymes in response to an oxidative stress in mouse liver without causing a significant increase in ALT activity.

peroxidation in wheat seedling. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 11(15): 1916-1922. DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.1916.1922. Bybordi A. 2012. Effect of ascorbic acid and silicium on photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and fatty acid contents in canola exposure to salt stress. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 11(10): 1610-1620. DOI: 10.1016/s2095-3119(12)60164-6. Farhoudi R., Sharifzadeh F., Poustini K., Makkizadeh M.T., Kochak Por M. 2007. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in canola (Brassica napus) seedlings grown under saline conditions. Seed Sci

intensity light. Plant Physiol., 65:234-238. Borsani O., Valpuesta V., Botella M.A., 2001 - Evidence for a role of salicylic acid in the oxidative damage generated by NaCl and osmotic stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant Physiol., 126: 1024-1030. Bradford M.M., 1976 - A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem., 72: 248-254. Chaitanya K.V., Sundar D., Masilamani S., Ramachandra Reddy A., 2002 - Variation in heat stress-induced antioxidant enzyme activities among


Seed dormancy provides a mechanism for plants to delay germination until conditions are optimal for survival of the next generation. Dormancy release is regulated by a combination of environmental and endogenous signals with both synergistic and competing effects. In many cases, viable seeds are called dormant, when they are simply not germinating. Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. (wild celery) is a medicinal plant (kind of umbelliferous) of Iran. Seeds of K. odoratissima often germinate poorly in the nursery, because of their seeds have a dormancy. Thus shortening the dormancy and increasing germination with laboratory methods can be effective in restoring the plant. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect different methods of breaking of dormancy on germination of Kelussia odoratissima. Experiments used were stratification (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks), stratification and gibberellin and stratification and nitrate potassium. Results showed that stratification, stratification and gibberellin and stratification and nitrate potassium increased germination characteristics and catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity. The highest germination percentage, seedling length, seedling dry weight and catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity were attained from stratification and gibberellin 500 ppm and stratification and nitrate potassium 1%. In general, results showed that stratification and gibberellic acid (500 ppm) is the best treatment for breaking of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. seed dormancy and in seeds antioxidant enzymes could trigger germination

maintenance, osmotic adjustment and soluble sugar and proline accumulation in 49 pea cultivars in response to water stress, Field Crop Research. 59: 225-235. Smirnoff N., 1993 - The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and desiccation, New Phytol. 125:27-58. Smirnoff N., 1995 - Antioxidant system and plant response to the environment. In: N. Smirnoff (eds.) environment and plant metabolism: flexibility and acclimation, BIOS Scientific Publishers Limited, Oxford, UK. Sun Y., 1990 - Free radicals, antioxidant enzymes, and carcinogenesis, Free

. Malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, is mutagenic in human cells. J Biol Chem 2003;278:31426-33. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M212549200 16. Pamplona R. Advanced lipoxidation end-products. Chem-Biol Interact 2011;192:14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.01.007 17. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MTD, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell B 2007;39:44-84. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2006.07.001 18. Matés JM. Efffects of antioxidant enzymes in the molecular control of reactive oxygen species

-related, antioxidant enzyme expression via the ERK1 and ERK2[MAPK]/NFκB cascade. Aging Cell 2005, 4:113–118. 13. Schogor ALB, Palin MF, Dos Santos GT, Benchaar C, Lacasse P, Petit HV: Mammary gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative indicators in the blood, milk, mammary tissue and ruminal fluid of dairy cows fed flax meal. British Journal of Nutrition 2013, 110:1-8. 14. Schumacker PT: Reactive oxygen species in cancer: a dance with the devil. Cancer Cell 2015, 27:156-157. 15. Sen S, Kawahara B, Chaudhuri G: Maintenance of higher H 2 O 2 levels, and its

Toxicol Chem., 27: 1904-14. Khot L.R., Sankaran S., Mari Maja J., Ehsani R., Schuster E.W., 2012 - Applications of nanomaterials in agricultural production and crop protection: a review. Crop Protection., 35: 64-70. Klaper R., Crago J., Barr J., Arndt D., Setyowati K., Chen J., 2009 - Toxicity biomarker expression in daphnids exposed to manufactured nanoparticles: changes in toxicity with functionalization. Environ Pollut. 157:1152–6. Laware S.L,. Raskar Shilpa, 2014 - Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on hydrolytic and antioxidant enzymes during seed

Effects of competitive pentathlon training on the antioxidant defence components

Study aim: To assess the effects of training on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes and on the total plasma antioxidant status in competitive pentathletes.

Material and methods: A group of 10 senior male pentathletes (P) and of 10 sedentary male subjects (S) participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from the antecubital vein in the morning, in the preprandial state. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) were determined in erythrocyte haemolisates, that of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in whole blood haemolysate, and the total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma.

Results: The activities of all enzymes were significantly (p<0.05 - 0.001) higher in P than in S group while no significant between-group difference was found for TAS.

Conclusions: The pronounced enzymatic antioxidative potential and oxidative stress defence observed in athletes practicing modern pentathlon may be attributed to their extensive training.