Antibody deficiencies, or hypogammaglobulinemia (HG), are characterized by decrease in the absolute number or function of circulating antibodies (immunoglobulins (Ig)), which predispose patients to severe and recurrent infections. Primary antibody deficiencies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), are due to intrinsic genetic mutations commonly resulting in defects of B-cell development or function.[ 1 ] Patients with untreated primary antibody deficiencies experience significant morbidity and
G. O. Kolawole, J. U. Umoh, S. N. Kia and A. Dzikwi
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Naidong Wang, Qinghui Tan, Anwen Yuan and Liqun Xue
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Bartel, G., Wahrmann, M., Regel, H. (2010). Peritransplant immunoadsorption for positive crossmatch deceased donor kidney transplantation. Amer. J. Transplant ., 10 , 2033-2041.
Billen, E., Christiaans, M., van denBerg-Loonen, E. (2009). Clinical relevance of Luminex donor-specific crossmatches: Data from 165 renal transplants. Tiss. Antigens , 74 (3), 205-211.
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Wendy González, Luis G. Giménez-Lirola, Ashley Holmes, Sergio Lizano, Christa Goodell, Korakrit Poonsuk, Panchan Sitthicharoenchai, Yaxuan Sun and Jeffrey Zimmerman
.J., Beddek A.J., Rycroft A.N., Kroll J.S., Langford P.R.: Actinobacillus pleuropneunomiae : pathobiology and pathogenesis of infection. Microb Infect 2002, 4, 225–235.
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6. Bossé J.T., Li Y., Sárközi R., Gottschalk M., Angen Ø., Nedbalcova K., Rycroft A.N., Fodor L., Langford P.R.: A unique capsule locus in the newly designated Actinobacillus
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1. Takata H, Fujimoto S. Metabolic syndrome. Nihon rinsho Japanese journal of clinical medicine. 2013;71(2):266-9.
2. Kargari M, Parizadeh SMR, Karimian MS, Farahmand SK, Sahebkar A, Esmaeili H, et al. Serum anti-HSP27 antibody titers in patients with metabolic syndrome, with or without diabetes mellitus. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 2016;25(4):895-901. DOI: 10.1007/s00580-016-2279-0
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The two major autoimmune diseases demonstrating activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) prolongation and normal prothrombin time (PT) on coagulation screening are antiphospholipid (aPL) antibody syndrome (APS) and acquired hemophilia. APTT cross-mixing test demonstrates an inhibitory pattern in both diseases, and the diagnoses are made according to clinical findings and the measurement of aPL antibodies or coagulation factor activities. Several cases of coexistent APS and acquired hemophilia have been reported; however, the mechanisms
May Phonvisay, Jai-Wei Lee, Jhong-Jie Liou, Hsian-Yu Wang and Chun-Yen Chu
them ( 4 , 5 , 27 ). Some OmpA vaccines against bacterial infections have been tested, and although immunisation with the purified recombinant protein (rOmpA) induced production of antibodies in ducks ( 3 , 7 ), administration of the preparations failed to effectively prevent morbidity.
Studies indicated that the efficacy of vaccines containing protein-based antigens such as rOmpA could be significantly enhanced by using CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) as the adjuvant. CpG ODNs are able to induce more balanced and effective immune responses that enhance the