Katarzyna Jasińska, Andrzej Brzeg and Maria Wojterska
Studies of the ﬂora of villages in a connection with the surrounding landscape are rare and mostly limited to the built-up area and its general location in a geographical region. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the diversity patterns of flora against the background of local landscape units in the rural areas and to analyse them in the context of village transformation. The study comprised 30 villages of medieval origin representing the oval-shape type, with differently preserved structure of built-up area and cultivated fields, located in the Lubuskie Lakeland. The terrain within a buffer zone of 200 m in width, located outside of the built-up area, was divided into spatial complexes. In each of these complexes, floristic lists were compiled. The structure of surrounding landscape within the buffer zone of 1 km in width, measuring from the village centroid, was analysed using ArcGIS.
The recorded flora comprised 767 taxa of spontaneously occurring vascular plants. Extremely rare and common species were the most numerous. Native species distinctly prevailed over alien in all types of spatial complexes and the majority of them occurred in the habitats transformed by man. There were noted altogether 244 species of anthropophytes.
The index of anthropophytization of flora (WAnt) showed that both types of built-up areas (transformed and non-transformed) reached the highest values, slightly higher than fields and central green. Index of flora modernization (WM) showed the same pattern. Only water bodies were strikingly different from other complexes in respect to both indices (WAnt - significantly lower values, while WM - much higher). Differences in the floristic composition of transformed and non-transformed villages were not significant at the level of whole village. The villages were still harbouring rare species from the group of relics of former cultivation and archaeophytes, but observations conducted since 2007 confirmed that they have been decreasing in number. The percentage of groups of species with different affinity toward urban areas have shown that in the studied rural areas, the share of urbanophilic species is still very low as compared to the dominant group of urbanoneutral and moderately urbanophobic species.
Asclepias syriaca L. is on the invasive species list in Poland. Its sites are scattered, with the exception of cultivation sites; they are also not well identified in the country and that is why they have not been presented in the ATPOL (Distribution Atlas of Vascular Plants in Poland) yet. In this study, spatial structure of A. syriaca population against phytocenotic and soil conditions in Widuchowa (West Pomerania)were examined. Number of specimens, their density per 1 m2, and mean crowding were determined. In addition, the population spatial structure type was identified through observations and by calculation of the dispersion coefficient. On the basis of the conducted research, it was found that the investigated population comprised 1 500 specimens and occupied the area of 38 m2. It exhibited regular spatial distribution type (dispersion coefficient<1) and was characterized by high value of mean shoot density, which amounted to 29 spec./1 m2 (max. 35 spec./1 m2). On the basis of the conducted chemical analysis of the soil from the A. syriaca habitat, the substrate was classified as alkaline soil (pH=7.3-7.6), of low total nitrogen (0.07-0.15%), as well as low total carbon content (0.8-1.45%).
Tomasz Kowalczyk, Artur Pliszko and Szymon M. Drobniak
Persicaria nepalensis (L.) Mill. is an annual herb occurring natively in South, East and Southeast Asia, having a range extending from Oceania to East Africa. Here we report the first Polish stand of this species, found in 2011 near Baligród (Western Bieszczady Mountains), followed by the discovery of two more stands in the surrounding area up to 2013. The floristic composition of vegetation impacted by P. nepalensis is presented, and the invasive potential and pathways of introduction of the species are briefly discussed.
- zasady gospodarowania i ochrona, pp. 111-116. Zieleń miast i wsi, Toruń. StatSoft 2014. Statistica ver. 10. StatSoft Polska, Kraków.
Sudnik-Wójc ikowska B. 1994. Changes in the species composition of anthropophytes in Warsaw over the last 150 years. In: S. Mochnacký & A. Terpo (eds.). Proceeding of Intenational Conference: Anthropization and environment of rural settlements - flora and vegetation, pp. 154-158. Bot. Garden, P. J. Šafárik Univ. Košice.
Sudnik-Wójc ikowska B. 1998. Czasowe i przestrzenne aspekty procesu synantropizacji
the flora of Poland: list, status and origin. In: J. B. Faliński, W. Adamowski & B. Jackowiak (eds.). Synantropization of plant cover in new Polish research. Phytocoenosis 10 (N. S.) Suppl. Cartogr. Geobot. 9: 107-116.
Zając E. U. & Zając A. 1975. Lista archeofitów występujących w Polsce. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego. Prace Bot. (Cracow) 3: 7-16.
Załuski T. & Paszek I. 2003. Anthropophytes in flora of the forest complex of the Górzno- Lidzbark Landscape Park. In: A. Zając, M. Zając & B. Zemanek (eds
The New Locality of Chenopodium Pumilio R. Br. in Poland
The clammy goosefoot Chenopodium pumilio R. Br. is a rare anthropophyte in the Polish flora. Hitherto, this species was recorded in Gdańsk and Rybnik. The present study describes the newly-discovered locality in Stryków near Łódź (Central Poland), the occurrence of this species in Poland and the general geographical distribution in the world.
Anna Sołtys-Lelek, Beata Barabasz-Krasny and Katarzyna Możdżeń
Although riparian forests are still common in Europe, their variants - similar to natural forests - are rare. They are, as communities, early stages of forest-shrub succession, particularly vulnerable to the expansion of neophytes for which they are an important type of vegetation that enables their spread. In the Ojców National Park (ON P), these types of phytocoenoses are heavily influenced by anthropogenic pressure. The preservation of their biodiversity is particularly difficult because of the fragmentation and small area occupied by the Park - just 2.89 ha. There have been no data on synanthropization of ON P riparian forests until now. The ‘conservation status’ of these communities was determined by examining the degree of anthropophyte participation in their floristic composition. This determination is necessary to take effective preventive measures. In 2012-2014, phytosociological studies were carried out on the ON P riparian communities. A particular attention was paid to the presence and quantitative participation of alien species in research plots. The obtained results revealed that there were 189 plant species in alluvial forests of the ON P, including 80 synanthropic species. The group of synanthropes comprised 32 anthropophytes: 5 diaphytes, 9 archaeophytes and 18 kenophytes.
Evarts-Bunders P., Evarte-Bundere G., 2018: New knowledge about species of the genus Chaerophyllum (Apiaceae) in Latvia. - Botanica, 24(2): 115-123. The genus Chaerophyllum belongs to the Apiaceae family, which is one of the most complicated and difficult to identify in Latvia. There are five species verified by herbarium materials known in Latvia: Chaerophyllum aromaticum - native species, rather frequent in all regions in forests, parks and shrublands, C. aureum - anthropophyte, known only from one locality in Daugavpils city along the railway, C. bulbosum - anthropophyte, earlier grown as a root vegetable and now found rarely in parks, at roadsides, waste places, along fences and under canopy of trees close to human settlements, C. hirsutum - native species, known from several localities only in south-eastern part of Latvia, mostly in the Daugava valley - forested ravines, slopes of broad-leaved forests, and C. temulum - alien species, known only from few localities - waste places, railway sides and old manor parks in the whole territory of Latvia. The most striking results are related to the distribution of C. hirsutum in Latvia. The literature sources and herbarium material of Anthriscus nitida, previously known and collected in Latvia, after our critical revision are considered as Chaerophyllum hirsutum, whereas Anthriscus nitida at least in the Latvian flora has not been identified yet and has been removed from the flora lists by mistake.
Marcin Kiedrzyński, Katarzyna Zielińska and Paulina Grzelak
Transformation of Forest Vegetation After 40 Years of Protection in the Tomczyce Nature Reserve (Central Poland)
The Tomczyce nature reserve is characterized by a degenerated forest vegetation. We assume that the regeneration process was possible to launch after the establishment of the nature reserve in 1968. The vegetation of the Tomczyce forest complex was characterized for the first time by Jakubowska-Gabara (1976) whose studies were taken as a basis of our research. The phytocenoses after 40. years of protection have a greater participation of species with higher trophic and moisture requirements. The regeneration process in communities with pine trees is caused by an expansion of broad-leaved trees and shrubs. Transformation of forest vegetation causes a decrease in cover of thermophilous and heliophilous species. On the other hand, species of oak-hornbeam forests as well as anthropophytes are in expansion. Planning of the protection activities in the nature reserve needs to include these dynamic tendencies of the vegetation.
The present paper discusses the wild roses of the National Nature Park ‘Podilskyi Tovtry’. The purpose of the work was to compile a full list of the wild Rosa taxa growing in the study area and present their distribution. Based on the field studies during the years 2009-2013 and published data, 20 taxa have been recorded, among them: 16 native species (including three hybrids with the rank of species), 2 anthropophytes and 2 hybrids. However, the taxonomical status of Rosa caryophyllacea Besser is not clear and species requires taxonomical revision. Three new rosa species for the Park were found during the studies. These are: Rosa micrantha, R. ×subcanina and R. ×subcollina. The list of the roses occurring in this area is still far away from being completed, therefore, further research is needed.