Raised and transitional peat bogs, despite their considerable resistance to synanthropization, as a result of anthropogenic transformations are exposed to the colonisation by alien species. One of them is the peatland “Roby”, where, in the years 2007-2009 and 2014, floristic, phytosociological and soil studies were carried out in order to record the signs of ongoing synanthropization. Conducted observations and analyses indicated that the expansion of willows has taken place and at present they occupy a large part of the bog, encroaching into bog birch forest and successfully competing with Myrica gale. Progressive peat mineralisation and constructed surfaced roads within the bog, contributed to the appearance and wide distribution of synanthropic species, such as: Urtica dioica, Impatiens parviflora and Spiraea salicifolia. Raised bog communities and their characteristic species occur on a few fragments of the bog, in north-western part, where water regime is shaped mainly by precipitation and peat deposit is fairly well-preserved. At the same time, in the patches of these communities, a distinct unfavourable increase in the share of Molinia caerulea is observed.
, Intro-Druk, Koszalin: 7-23. Marcinek J. & Komisarek, J., 2004. Antropogeniczne przekształcenia gleb Pojezierza Poznańskiego na skutek intensywnego użytkowania rolniczego. Anthropogenictransformations of soils of Poznań Lakeland as a results of intensive agricultural farming. Wyd. A. R. w Poznaniu, Poznań. Niewiarowski W., Celmer T., Marciniak K., Pietrucień C., Proszek P. & Sinkiewicz M., 1992. Przebieg współczesnych procesów denudacyjnych na młodoglacjalnej wysoczyźnie morenowej intensywnie użytkowanej rolniczo, na przykładzie okolic Koniczynki, na północny wschód
The purpose of this article is to present the role of human impact in the forming and transformation of the relief of the Aegean Islands. The most significant changes (with a displacement of more than 10 bln m3 of rock material) are related to the creation of road infrastructure and the construction of agricultural terraces. In order to create stone buildings, 20 mln m3 of rock material was used; for the purposes of air transport a surface area of nearly 2.5 km2 was levelled; many kilometres of artificial shorelines were created and at least 4.5 mln m3 of material was displaced for the purposes of the construction of artificial reservoirs of a total capacity of more than 25 mln m3. A huge amount of material was removed as a result of mining activities. The indirect impact of economic activities on the relief of the discussed area includes mainly slope, fluvial and coastal processes.
In this article an attempt was made to analyse the Bytom city relief changes in 1883-1994 years. It concentrates on the forms which are an effect of the mining and metallurgical activity such as subsidence depressions and dumps. Two digital relief models representing a topographic situation in year 1883 and 1994 were made by the Vertical Mapper tool in order to determine changes in the relief. The models were made by linear vectorization of contour lines, which then were processed into points. The made points were interpolated by the natural neighbour method. Maps of slopes, area profiles, contour line sketches and hypsographic curves were generated for two time periods on basis of the digital relief models. An area and values of subsidence for areas subjected to the mining activity, changes of the slopes, an average land altitude in 1883 and 1994 year were determined and an anthropogenic denudation ratio was also calculated. As the result of the research made, it has been established that the area of the subsidence is 3727 ha (about 54% of the city area) and the maximum value of subsidence is about 37 meters, there was a growth of the slopes at a simultaneous drop of the land average altitude, and the anthropogenic denudation ratio is 44 mm/year (800 greater than the natural denudation ratio).
Rivers used to serve important functions in the development of cities, and river valleys are a part of the urban space. Regardless of several centuries of anthropogenic influences large rivers and their valleys have remained the dominant elements of the cityscape. In the case of small rivers and valleys the situation has been different. The expansion of urban infrastructure often led to an elimination of rivers and their valleys from the developed area. In many cases rivers were directed down straightened concrete ditches and sometimes the locations of their channels were changed altogether. In the city centre, rivers were locked in underground channels, i.e. they vanished from the cityscape. Urban floods, so annoying for the inhabitants, usually occur within river sections which have been utilized intensively and covered with impermeable surface. Even though a river was hidden in underground interceptor pipes, a valley dip remains still accumulating rainfall. The aim of this article is to present the extent of transformation of small rivers and valleys within two large cities located on watersheds: Łódź and Lviv, and the contemporary utilization and the possibility of renaturalising them.
Large-scale river regulation, drainage and intense farming in the Barycz valley initiated in 17th century activated a transformation of the initial alluvial and swamp-alluvial soils. Soils on the Holocene flooded terraces have deep, acid humus horizons (umbric) and gleyic properties at shallow depth, but have no stratification of parent material to a depth of 100 cm. Despite the location in the floodplain, soils cannot be classified as black-earth alluvial soils (mady czarnoziemne) using the criteria of Polish soil classification (2011). The soils on the Pleistocene non-flooded terraces have a deep, base-saturated humus horizon (mollic) and gleyic properties in the lower part of soil profile, which allows to classify them as the black earths (czarne ziemie). Prominent stratification of the parent material well preserved in these soils has no influence on their classification (due to the age sediments). Almost all humus horizons of these soils meet the definition of anthric characteristics, and more than half of the studied soils can be classified as culturozemic soils - rigosols - which emphasises the important role of man in the transformation and gaining of morphological features of these soils. The lack of precise criteria for identifying soil types in the chernozemic order of the Polish soil classification (2011) causes difficulties in the classification of soils on the river terraces, in particular, in distinguishing between black-earth alluvial soils and black earths.
.1016/j.geomorph.2006.06.018.  James LA, Marcus WA. The human role in changing fluvial systems: Retrospect, inventory and prospect. Geomorphology. 2006;79:152-171. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.06.017.  Obolewski K, Gotkiewicz W, Strzelczak A, Osadowski Z, Astel AM. Influence of anthropogenictransformations of river bed on plant and macrozoobenthos communities. Environ Monit Assess. 2011;173(1-4):747-63. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1420-9.  Touron-Poncet H, Bernadet C, Compin A, Bargier N, Céréghino R. Implementing the Water Framework Directive in overseas
A geotechnical aspect of destruction processes of seashores was identified based on the case of erosion of Gdansk Bay Coast cliff formations. Causative factors of landslide were described in the context of natural phenomena, land development and its anthropogenic transformations. Possible directions of theoretical analysis of changes in ground-water relations were indicated.
The article presents an attempt to reconstruct the original site topographies of 13th-century Teutonic castles at Unisław and Starogród, which have not been preserved in the surface terrain. The archaeological remains of both castles are located in the west of Chełmno Land, on the edge of a moraine plateau 30 to 50 metres above the floor of the Vistula valley. The reconstruction used a research approach known as Historical GIS (HGIS), which, besides archaeological data, employs digitised historical cartographic sources. The research showed that changes in the original site topography are associated with anthropogenic transformations in the plateau surface, mainly due to agricultural use, and with retreat of the plateau edge resulting from natural and man-made landslide processes. The authors believe that the reconstruction of the castles’ original site topographies could be used to verify detailed hypotheses related to the conditions of their construction and operation.
The royal fern (Osmunda regalis L.) is a threatened species, which reaches the northeastern border of its natural range in Poland. The number of royal fern stands is decreasing due to decline of its natural habitat - alder carrs. The main aim of this paper was to compare features of stands in habitats representing different levels of anthropogenic transformation and to investigate all stands of the royal fern in the ‘Baszków’ nature reserve (3.76 ha; Krotoszyn Forest District, Poland). We distinguished four plant communities within the nature reserve: Carici elongatae-Alnetum, Molinio-Pinetum, Leucobryo-Pinetum and Pinus-Padus. In total, we found 144 royal fern specimens within the nature reserve area growing in 20 stands: 97 specimens in Carici-Alnetum (9 stands), 32 specimens in Molinio-Pinetum (4 stands) and 15 specimens along a drainage ditch (7 stands). Specimens from Carici-Alnetum had the highest proportion of sporophylles (41%), which shows the habitat preferences of the royal fern. Low proportion of sporophylles and the low number of specimens in the stands in ditches prove lower vitality of royal ferns and possibility of local extirpation in these stands. Royal fern populations in secondary habitats such as ditches and borders of forest divisions should be particularly monitored. Passive royal fern protection in the nature reserve gave positive results due to better availability of light, connected with mortality of some trees.