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References 1. Bissada H. et al.: Olanzapine in the treatment of low body weight and obsessive thinking in women with anorexia nervosa: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry, 165, 10,2008. 2. Court A. et al.: Investigating the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of quetiapine in the treatment of anorexia nervosa in young people: a pilot study. J Psychiatr Res., 44, 15, 2010. 3. Hagman J. et al.: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone for the treatment of adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa: a pilot

REFERENCES 1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. Washington, DC: APA; 2013. 2. Keating C. Theoretical perspective on anorexia nervosa: The conflict of reward. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010;34:73-9. 3. Birmingham CL, Treasure J. Medical management of eating disorders 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2011. 4. Jáuregui-Garrido B, Jáuregui-Lobera I. Sudden death in eating disorders. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2012;8:91-8. 5. NICE. Eating disorders: core interventions in the treatment and

References 1. Boghi A., Sterpone S., Sales S., D'Agata F., Bradac G.B., Zullo G., et al. In vivo evidence of global and focal brain alterations in ano-rexia nervosa. Psychiatry Res., 2011; 192: 154–159; DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.12.008. 2. Muhlau M., Gaser C., Ilg R., Conrad B., Leibl C., Cebulla M.H., et al. Gray matter decrease of the anterior cingulate cortex in anorexia nervosa. Am. J. Psychiatr., 2007; 64: 1850–1857; DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.06111861. 3. Swayze VW., Andersen AE., Andreasen NC., Arndt S., Sato Y., Ziebell S. Brain tissue volume

, Cleveland R, Sonis A, Brown JN, Gordon CM . Oral health and bone density in adolescents and young women with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Pediatr Dent , 2008; 33(2):87-92. 50. Burkhart N, Roberts M, Alexander M, Dodds A . Communicating effectively with patients suspected of having bulimia nervosa. J Am Dent Assoc , 2005; 136(8):1130-1137.

REFERENCES 1. Attia E., Walsh B.T.: Anorexia nervosa. Am. J. Psych. , 164, 63362, 2007. 2. Bomba J. (2003). Zaburzenia jedzenia. Próba spojrzenia z perspektywy historycznej . Kraków: Wyd. Biblioteka Psychiatrii Polskiej, p.11-16. 3. Daszkowska M., Rybarczyk-Townsend E., Wochna-Sobańska M.: Ocena stanu zdrowia jamy ustnej u pacjentek z zaburzeniami odżywiania. Czas. Stomatol. , 61, 88, 2008. 4. Johansson A.K., Norring C., Unell L., Johansson A.: Eating disorders and oral health: a matched case-control study. Eur. J. Oral Sci. , 120, 61, 2012. 5. Klasyfikacja

References: 1. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 2013, Arlington, VA. American Psychiatric Association, 329-354. American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 2013 Arlington, VA American Psychiatric Association 329 354 2. Helström I. Oral complications in anorexia nervosa. Scand J Dent Res 1977; 85: 71-86. Helström I. Oral complications in anorexia nervosa Scand J Dent Res 1977 85 71 86 3. Hurst PS, Lacey JH, Crisp AH. Teeth, vomiting and diet: study of the dental

memory – may be risk or maintenance factors for EDs ( Manasse et al., 2015 ). Nonetheless, evidence is somehow mixed in several aspects ( Wu et al., 2014 ), considering various socio-demographic and clinical confounders. Significant methodological weaknesses (e.g., use of a single executive control measure, omission of relevant covariates) in the current literature represent one reason for lack of consensus. For example, considering Anorexia Nervosa (AN), children and adolescents populations show little, if any, impairment in set-shifting ability ( Lang et al., 2014

Literature and the Anorexic Body. Cambridge: CUP, 2004. Print. Malson, Helen. The Thin Woman: Feminism, Post-structuralism and the Social Psychology of Anorexia Nervosa. London: Routledge, 1998. Print. Orbach, Israel. “The Body-Mind of the Suicidal Person.” Cognition and Suicide: Theory, Research, and Therapy. Ed. Thomas Ellis. Washington: American Psychological Association, 2006: 193-214. Print. Rossetti, Christina. Poems and Prose. Oxford: OUP, 2008. Print. Showalter, Elaine. The Female Malady. London: Virago, 1985. Print. Tofighi, Bhaman. “A Study of the Relationship

Cancer cachexia-anorexia syndrome and skeletal muscle wasting

Background. Cachexia-anorexia syndrome is a common and important indicator of cancer. It occurs in 30% to 80% of cancer patients. Cachexia means "bad condition" and may be present in the early stages of tumor growth, before any signs of malignancy. Cancer cachexia is a syndrome of progressive body wasting, characterized by loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass. In most cancer patients, cachexia is characterized by anorexia, which implies a failure of food intake, regulated through a complex system of hormones and neuropeptides. A decline in food intake relative to energy expenditure is a fundamental physiologic derangement leading to cancer associated weight loss. The weight loss in patients with cachexia-anorexia syndrome differs from that in caloric starvation or anorexia nervosa. The pathophysiology of cancer cachexia is not fully understood; however, studies have shown that cytokines are important in the alteration of the carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. Cancer, prolonged bed rest, HIV infection and aging are conditions in which muscle wasting is a common feature. An intervention that may potentially attenuate the progression of muscle wasting in cancer patients is resistance exercise training, defined as multiple repetitions of static or dynamic muscular contractions that increase muscle mass.

Conclusions. The main components of the pathological state of cachexia are anorexia and metabolic abnormalities such as fat depletion and muscle protein catabolism. Future developments may concentrate on the molecular abnormalities of cachexia and on examination of the functional benefit of resistance exercise training for cancer related muscle wasting.

general family environment and sexual and physical abuse in the origins of eating disorders. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 1997;5(3):184-207. 5. Garner DM, Olmsted MP, Polivy J. The development and validation of a multidimensional Eating Disorder Inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Int J Eat Disord. 1983;2:15-34. 6. Kog E, Vandereycken W. Family characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia: a review of the research literature. Clin Psychol Rev. 1985;5:159-80. 7. Vanderlinden J. Anorexia nervosa overwinnen. Tielt: Lannoo; 2002. 8. Garcia-Vilches I, Badia-Casanovas A