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Decarburization of the Carbon Steel C45 During Annealing in Air

of spring steel 60Si2MnA. International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials , 20(8), pp. 720–724. [5] Liu, Y., Zhang, W., Tong, Q., Wang, L. (2014): Effects of Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on the Characteristics of Decarburization of 55SiCr Spring Steel. ISIJ International , 54(8), pp. 1920–1926. [6] Zorc, M. (2016): Decarburization of non-alloy medium carbon steel during annealing in an air atmosphere (in Slovenian), Diploma Thesis, Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural sciences and Engineering - Department of

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A Smart Amalgamation of Spectral Neural Algorithm for Nonlinear Lane-Emden Equations with Simulated Annealing

, Architecture and Functionalities, Computer, 25(5), 1992, 76–79 [31] K. A. Dowsland, Hill-Climbing, Simulated Annealing and the Steiner Problem in Graphs, Eng. Optim, 17, 1991, 91–107 [32] B. Caruntu, C. Bota, Approximate polynomial solutions of the nonlinear Lane-Emden type equations arising in astrophysics using the squared remainder minimization method, Comput. Phys. Commun, 184, 2013, 1643–1648 [33] J. A. Khan, M. A. Z. Raja, I. M. Qureshi, Numerical treatment of nonlinear Emden–Fowler equation using stochastic technique, Ann Math Artif Intell, 63

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Shape optimization of road tunnel cross-section by simulated annealing

obótka M., Ł ydżba D., R óżański A., Shape optimization of underground excavation by simulated annealing , Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica , 2013, 35(1), 209–218. [5] N guyen T., G habraie K., T ran -C ong T., Simultaneous pattern and size optimisation of rock bolts for underground excavations , Computers and Geotechnics, 2015, 66, 264–277. [6] S ałustowicz A., Zarys mechaniki górotworu , Wydawnictwo Śląsk, Katowice, 1968. [7] X ie Y.M., S teven G.P., A simple evolutionary procedure for structural optimization , Comput. Struct., 1993, No

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Improved Bidirectional CABOSFV Based on Multi-Adjustment Clustering and Simulated Annealing

. Clustering Algorithm of Categorical Data in Consideration of Sorting by Weight. – Journal of University of Science & Technology Beijing, Vol. 35 , 2013, No 8, pp. 1093-1098. 17. Kirkpatrick, S., C. D. Gelatt, M. P. Vecchi. Optimization by Simulated Annealing. – Science, Vol. 220 , 1983, No 4598, pp. 671-680. 18. Robini, M. C., P. J. Reissman. From Simulated Annealing to Stochastic Continuation: A New Trend in Combinatorial Optimization. – Glob. Optim., Vol. 56 , 2013, No 1, pp. 185-215. 19. Guodong, Yu et al. Research on the Time Optimization Model

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Pareto simulated annealing for the design of experiments: illustrated by a gene expression study

References [1] G. E. P. Box and N. R Draper. Empirical Model Building and Response Surfaces. New York: J. Wiley & Sons., 1987. [2] G. E. P. Box, W. G. Hunter, and J. S. Hunter. Statistics for Experimenters. New York: J. Wiley & Sons., 1978. [3] G. E. P. Box and K. B. Wilson. On the experimental attainment of optimum conditions (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B, 13(1):1{45, 1951. [4] P. Czyzak and A. Jaszkiewicz. Pareto simulated annealing

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Simulation of OSL Pulse-Annealing at Different Heating Rates: Conclusions Concerning the Evaluated Trapping Parameters and Lifetimes

Simulation of OSL Pulse-Annealing at Different Heating Rates: Conclusions Concerning the Evaluated Trapping Parameters and Lifetimes

Pulse annealing has been the subject of several studies in recent years. In its basic form, it consists of relatively short-time optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements of a given sample after annealing at successively higher temperatures in, say, 10°C increments. The result is a decreasing function with a maximum OSL at low temperatures and gradually decreasing to zero at high temperature. Another presentation is that of the percentage OSL signal lost per annealing phase, associated with minus the derivative of the former curve, which yields a thermoluminescence (TL)-like peak. When the heating is performed at different heating rates, the TL various heating rates (VHR) method can be utilized to evaluate the trapping parameters. Further research yielded more complex pulse-annealing results in quartz, explained to be associated with the hole reservoir. In the present work, we simulate numerically the effect, following the experimental steps, in the simpler form when no reservoir is involved, and in the more complex case where the reservoir plays an important role. The shapes of the reduction-rate curves resemble the experimental ones. The activation energies found by the VHR method are very close to the inserted ones when the retrapping probability is small, and deviate from them when retrapping is strong. The theoretical reasons for this deviation are discussed.

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Comparative study on different annealing methods and choice of solvent in organic field effect transistors based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene)

Abstract

A simple approach to study the effect of processing on the charge carrier mobility in an organic field effect transistor (OFET) based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR P3HT) is investigated in this paper. It is found that different processing conditions can induce different degrees of hysteresis, which is well correlated with the charge mobility where lower hysteresis represents higher stability and hence higher charge mobility. Solvent annealing tends to create large nano-scale pinholes in P3HT which degrade the mobility.

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Deposition time and annealing effects on morphological and optical properties of ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

Abstract

Nanocrystalline zinc sulfide thin films were prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition method using aqueous solutions of zinc chloride, thiourea ammonium hydroxide along with non-toxic complexing agent trisodium citrate in alkaline medium at 80 °C. The effect of deposition time and annealing on the properties of ZnS thin films was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical transmittance spectroscopy and four-point probe method. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the samples exhibited cubic sphalerite structure with preferential orientation along 〈2 0 0〉 direction. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs revealed uniform surface coverage, UV-Vis (300 nm to 800 nm) spectrophotometric measurements showed transparency of the films (transmittance ranging from 69 % to 81 %), with a direct allowed energy band gap in the range of 3.87 eV to 4.03 eV. After thermal annealing at 500 °C for 120 min, the transmittance increased up to 87 %. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of the deposited films increased with increasing of the deposition time from 0.35 × 10−4 Ω·cm−1 to 2.7 × 10−4 Ω·cm−1.

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Crystalline phase evolution in nanostructured copper sulfide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method: the effect of annealing

Abstract

In this study, physical properties of copper sulfide thin films deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis method at different temperatures (260 °C, 285 °C and 310 °C) were investigated. The influence of annealing time on the physical properties of grown layers was also studied. According to FESEM images, the sizes of the compact copper sulfide grains were varied from about 100 nm to 60 nm. Hall effect and resistivity measurements confirmed that all samples had p-type conductivity. The XRD patterns showed that, together with the dominant digenite phase (Cu1.8S) in all samples, the copper-rich phases also appeared as a result of increasing substrate temperature. The optical UV-Vis spectra analysis showed that due to increasing the substrate temperature, the band gap of the layers was reduced from about 2.4 eV to 2.0 eV. We found that as a result of annealing at 400 °C for 1.5 h in Ar atmosphere, the sample which was initially grown at 310 °C with the highest copper content, totally transformed into the polycrystalline monoclinic chalcocite phase (Cu2S) with 3D nanoporous architecture.

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The influence of thermal annealing on structure and oxidation of iron nanowires

Abstract

Raman spectroscopy as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied in order to study the phase composition of iron nanowires and its changes, caused by annealing in a neutral atmosphere at several temperatures ranging from 200°C to 800°C. As-prepared nanowires were manufactured via a simple chemical reduction in an external magnetic field. Both experimental techniques proved formation of the surface layer covered by crystalline iron oxides, with phase composition dependent on the annealing temperature (T a). At higher T a, hematite was the dominant phase in the nanowires.

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