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Utilization of animal fat waste as carbon source by carotenogenic yeasts – a screening study

Abstract

Red yeast strains are ubiquitous microorganisms which accumulate substantial amounts of lipids and lipid-soluble metabolites. Red yeasts utilize many waste substrates of different origin. In this work red yeasts strains (Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, Cystofilobasidium) were used for screening of growth and metabolic activity. As a carbon source waste animal fat and its hydrolysis products were used. Hydrolysis of animal fat was tested in alkaline as well as acidic conditions. As the substrate glucose (control), glycerol, crude animal fat, acid fat hydrolyzate and hydrolysate: glucose 1:2 were used. Screening of growth and metabolic activity of red yeasts was performed by flow cytometry. Extracellular lipase production was monitored as adaptation mechanism. Carotenoids, ergosterol and ubiquinone were quantified by HPLC/PDA/MS/ESI and the biomass was evaluated gravimetrically. All tested strains utilized fat hydrolysate and produced red coloured biomass. Cultivation in media containing non-hydrolysed fat led to strain specific induction of extracellular lipase. Amount of lipid metabolites produced by individual strains was depended on glycerol content in medium. The highest increase of lipase production was observed in Cystofilobasidium macerans and Sporobolomyces shibatanus. Valorisation of animal fat can lead to production of unsaturated fatty acids, single cell oils, carotenoid pigments, sterols and enriched red yeast biomass.

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Evaluation of Fatty Acids Composition of Some Food Samples by Using GC-MS and NMR Techniques

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to compare the composition (weight % of total identified FA) in saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids from 3 food matrices (sunflower oil, palm oil and lard) by 2 different techniques, gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). For GC-MS technique, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) identification in the samples was performed by comparison of the retention times (RT) and the mass/charge (m/z) ratio characteristic of each FAME component in the reference standards used (F.A.M.E. Mix C4 - C24 and SRM®2377). FAMEs quantification from food samples was realized by applying correction factors calculated based on reference standards. NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker Advance 400 MHz spectrometer, operating at 9.4 Tesla corresponding to the resonance frequency of 400.13 MHz for the 1H nucleus. The NMR spectra was recorded directly on the oil without any sample preparation. The difference between the mean values of the fatty acids content determined by GC-MS and NMR was not more than ± 15% for sunflower oil and lard, and ± 6% for palm oil.

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Spectrometric Determination of Content of Methyl Palmitate in Methyl Esters of Waste Cooking Oils

. Pergamon, 63 , 62-92. Sander, A., Koscak, M. A., Kosir, D., Milosavljević, N., Vuković, J. P., Magić, L. (2018). The influence of animal fat type and purification conditions on biodiesel quality, Renewable Energy . Pergamon, 118 , 752-760. Schale, S. P., Le, T. M., Pierce, K. M. (2012). Predicting feedstock and percent composition for blends of biodiesel with conventional diesel using chemometrics and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Talanta , 94 , 320-327. Semwal, S., Arora, A. K., Badoni, R. P., Tuli, D. K. et al . (2011). Biodiesel

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Biosurfactants’ Production from Renewable Natural Resources: Example of Innovativeand Smart Technology in Circular Bioeconomy

. Daniels. „Evaluation of sophorolipid biosurfactant production by Candida bombicola using animal fat”, in Bioresource Technology , vol. 54, 1995, pp. 143-150. [41] H.J. Daniel, M. Reuss and C. Syldatk. „Production of sophorolipids in high concentration from deproteinized whey and rapeseed oil in a two stage fed batch process using Candida bombicola ATCC22214 and Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC20509”, in Biotechnology Letter , vol. 20, 1998, pp. 1153-1156. [42] H.J. Daniel, R.T. Otto, M. Binder, M. Reus and C. Syldatk. „Production of sophorolipids from whey

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Corrosion inhibition of iron surfaces with phosphatidic acid

Abstract

Preventing the corrosion of iron in inaccessible structures requires a coating method that reaches all surface areas and creates a uniform protective layer. An ages old practice to protect iron artefacts is to coat them with animal fat, that is, a mixture of lipids. This “method” is accidentally ingenious: some natural phospholipids found in animal fat have the potential to form a tightly packed self-assembled monolayer on metal oxide surfaces, similar to the surfactant monolayers that have attracted increasing attention lately. Thus, the most primitive corrosion prevention method may point at a way to coat complex iron structures in an industrial environment. Here the ability of phosphatidic acid, a natural lipid, to coat and protect iron surfaces was examined. Iron coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors were used for the experiments, to monitor the deposition of the lipid as well as the acidic corrosion (dissolution) of iron in situ, in real time. The sensors were coated by self-assembled monolayers of di-myristoyl phosphatidic acid using the liposome deposition method. In this process, 50-100 nm vesicles formed by the lipid are delivered in an aqueous solution and spontaneously coat the iron surfaces upon contact. QCM and ellipsometry measurements confirmed that continuous bilayer and monolayer surface coatings can be achieved by this method. QCM measurements also confirmed that the layers were corrosion resistant in 0.01M acetic acid solution that would dissolve the thin iron layer in minutes in the absence of the protective coating. XPS results suggested a chemisorption-based mechanism of phosphatidic acid attachment to the iron surface. Hence, liposome deposition of phosphatidic acid offers a suitable solution to coat iron surfaces in inaccessible structures in situ.

Open access
A comparative study of the content of heavy metals in oils: linseed oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil in technological production processes

Abstract

Vegetable oils belong to a large group of substances consumed on a daily basis. World vegetable oil production is soaring, reducing the popularity of animal fats. Heavy metals pose a threat to human health. It is estimated that about 80% of the daily dose of heavy metals enters the human body through the consumption of food. Hence, it is necessary to monitor their concentrations in food products. Besides, the presence of heavy metals is thought to have possible negative influence on the quality of oils, especially on their taste and smell. Heavy metals may also accelerate the process of the rancidifiction of oils. Rapeseeds, soybean seeds and linseeds were selected for the analysis because they are one of the most popular oilseeds and at the same time they differ in terms of growing conditions. The analyses of different fractions and the ready-made product were also performed. The aim of the study was to determine the variation in concentrations of heavy metals, iron and manganese in different fractions during production. The significant concentrations of iron, manganese and zinc were observed in oilseeds. It was also shown that during different stages of oil refining the concentrations of metals decrease. The concentrations of metals are compared with those reported in literature.

Open access
Fat Reduction and Replacement in Dry-Cured Fermented Sausage by Using High Pressure Processing Meat as Fat Replacer and Olive Oil

Abstract

The present paper describes the modification of the lipid fraction of dry-cured fermented sausage through fat reduction (35%) and fat replacement of animal fat with olive oil (up to 10%). High pressure processing (HPP) treated meat was employed as a novel fat replacer to reduce the fat content and as a new strategy to enable a stable incorporation of olive oil in dry-cured fermented sausages. Chemical (proximate composition and fatty acid profile), physical (water retention, structure formation and colour) and sensorial (appearance, texture and flavour) properties were evaluated. It is concluded that 35% of fat reduction is possible without reduction of consumer acceptability. Moreover, the addition of HPP-treated meat as a fat replacer resulted in good mimic of the fat particles together with good physical and sensory properties. Therefore, it resulted in an effective and clean alternative (no added-additives) for fat reduction. However, the incorporation of olive oil either by direct addition (4.3% oil) or within a HPP-created protein network (10% oil) resulted in unacceptable products since the oil was not properly retained inside the sausage matrix. Further studies are needed to find processing strategies that permit a stable incorporation of liquid plant oils to dry-cured fermented sausage for the development of healthier and more sustainable dry-cured fermented meat products.

Open access
Estimation of the refractive index of diesel fuel+biodiesel blends

Abstract

For now, biodiesel is the commonly accepted biofuel as a substitute for diesel fuel in internal combustion engines. Diesel fuel blends with up to 20% biodiesel can be used in diesel engines without any modification. A lot of studies regarding diesel fuel+biodiesel blends properties are presented in the literature. Some of the important properties of diesel fuel+biodiesel blends can be evaluated from other blends properties. For example, density and viscosity of biodiesel blends can be predicted based on blend refractive index. More than that, refractive index can be used as a reliable physical property to predict transesterification reaction progress. As a result, the refractive index of diesel fuel+biodiesel blends is important in order to characterize these blends or to monitor the evolution of transesterification process of vegetable oils or animal fats. The refractive index of diesel fuel+biodiesel blends can be experimentally determined or evaluated based on refractive indices of diesel fuel and biodiesel. The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of refractive index of diesel fuel +biodiesel blends calculation, using models initially proposed to evaluate the refractive index of a binary liquid mixture. It was shown that the refractive index of diesel fuel+biodiesel blends can be accurately predicted from refractive indices of the components of the blend. Wiener, Heller and Edward equations can be recommended to predict with a great accuracy the refractive index of diesel fuel+biodiesel blends.

Open access
The Nutritional Knowledge of Pregnant Women

Abstract

Introduction. Rational nutrition of women during pregnancy has a great influence on the developing fetus. In the properly developing pregnancy, woman should eat 3-4 quality meals per day. What is more, for the proper development of the fetus, as well as the placenta, uterus and the mammary gland, it is necessary to consume high-value protein products. Moreover, vitamins and mineral compounds are important due to the serious implications that arise if not properly provided.

Aim. The aim of the paper is to assess the nutritional practices, the level of knowledge held by pregnant women with respect to proper nourishment practices, and to define the influence of level of formal education achieved upon this issue.

Material and methods. The research involved 87 pregnant women who were under the care of the outpatient women's health centre and high-risk pregnancy unit of the Regional Specialist Hospital in Biała Podlaska.

Results and discussion. According to most of the female respondents, information concerning proper nutrition of pregnant women is not generally available. Because of this, in completing the questionnaire, more than half of the subjects stated that they often consume white bakery products, white rice and refined pasta - with insufficient consumption of brown bread, rice and wholemeal pasta. Furthermore, while the respondents seem to consume the proper amount of potatoes, barely 8% consume other vegetables with the advised frequency. Moreover, only 31% of the respondents take-in fruits in necessary quantities. However, a majority of them frequently consume milk, yoghurt, cheese, kefir and buttermilk; plus, more than half of the respondents drink at least 1-2 litres of various kinds of liquids per day. Our results also reveal that they very rarely consume fresh fish, poultry and red beef meat, preferring cooked products. Indeed, the respondents stated that they consume meat and fish mainly in a fried form, while 52.9% of the women take-in fast food products. Of note, the surveyed women prefer animal fats. In addition, nearly 70% of the subjects consume too many eggs. Furthermore, more than 40% consume an excessive amount of sugar and sweets. To conclude, the proper amount of meals is consumed by only 52.7% of the respondents, no matter their formal education level.

Conclusions. Many abnormalities were found while verifying negatively the hypothesis, according to which, level of formal education achieved has an impact on the increase of consciousness in terms of proper nourishment during the pregnancy.

Open access
Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Biodiesel And Bioethanol Samples

Abstract

This article deals with thermal properties of selected biodiesel and bioethanol samples (biodiesel No 1, No 2 and bioethanol No 1, No 2). Biodiesel is renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant grease for use in diesel vehicles. Biodiesel‘s physical properties are similar to those of petroleum diesel, but it is a cleaner-burning alternative fuel. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is a clear liquid. Also known as ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and EtOH, the molecules in this fuel contain a hydroxyl group (OH-) bonded to a carbon atom. Ethanol is made of the same chemical compound regardless of whether it is produced from starch and sugar-based feedstocks, such as corn grain, sugar cane, etc. The hot wire method was used for thermal parameters measurements. The experiment is based on measuring the temperature rise vs. time evaluation of an electrically heated wire embedded in the tested material. Thermal conductivity is derived from the resulting change in temperature over a known time interval. For two samples of biodiesel and two samples of bioethanol, there were determined basic thermophysical parameters - thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Two series of measurements were made for each sample of biodiesel and bioethanol. In the first series, there were measured the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity at constant room temperature 20 °C. Every thermophysical parameter was measured 10 times for each sample. The results were statistically processed. In the second series of measurements, there were measured the relations of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity to temperature in temperature range 20-29 °C. It was evident from results that all measured dependencies are nonlinear. Polynomial functions described by polynomial coefficients were obtained for both thermophysical parameters. The type of function was selected according to statistical evaluation based on the coefficient of determination for every thermophysical parameter graphical dependency. All obtained results are presented in Figures 1-4 and in Tables 1-4. The results of thermophysical parameters measurements of biodiesel and bioethanol could be compared with the values presented in literature.

Open access