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References BATESON, P. (1991): Assesment of pain in animals. In: Animal Behaviour , 42(5), pp. 827–839. BATESON, P. (2017): Behaviour, Development and Evolution . Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers. BATESON, P. (2005): Ethics and behavioral biology. In: Advances in the Study of Behaviour , 35, pp. 211–233. BONNET, X., SHINE, R. & LOURDAIS, O. (2002): Taxonomic chauvinism. In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution , 17(1), pp. 1–3. COTTINGHAM, R. (2008): Cartesian Reflections . Oxford: Oxford University Press. HARRISON, P. (1991): Do Animals Feel Pain? In

language University of Manchester, UK Maisie Tomlinson Measuring ephemera: finding the “qualitative” in Qualitative Behaviour Assessment as a “whole-animal” science of animal welfare Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA) emerged in the early 2000s as a way of evaluating the expressive quality of animal behaviour  and emotions using qualitative descriptors, such as “playful” or “depressed.” Developed in response to the scepticism of behaviourist attitudes to animal emotions, QBA is now an internationally respected methodology, if

Sporting Recommendations for Teaching Fair Play: A Logical and Evolutionary Account

In this paper I argue for a cross-disciplinary approach to teaching sport ethics. I call this a logical and evolutionary account because information that emanates from cell biology, anthropology, philosophy and everywhere in between, I claim, is needed in developing effective fair play pedagogies. The gist of the argument is this: We need to teach smarter, not just harder. Teaching smarter, I say, comes from an understanding of human nature and the logic of sport. I discuss animal behavior, emotions, genetic predispositions, human evolution, the structure of games, philosophical idealism, and other factors in producing five recommendations for teaching sport ethics.


A pasture-based system for dairy cattle is not common due to the need for milking, despite the fact that this system provides the possibility of natural animal behaviour. Six behavioural observations were carried out during the grazing season in dairy herds bred in a mountainous area (700 m a. s. l.) The basic herd was comprised of 53 cows, mainly of the Holstein breed. From April to November the herd was located on pastures near the stables and milked twice a day in a tandem milking parlour. Feed ration was composed of pasture and concentrated feed in the stable. During the grazing season, there was a slight variation with a tendency to extend the grazing period to the autumn months. The cattle grazed the shortest time in May - 35.0% of the day or 8.4 hours. In the autumn months the grazing time increased by 2.2 and 2.6 hours respectively. Cows were resting the longest time period in May and June (8.9 and 9.1 h respectively). On the other hand, cows were resting for the shortest time in October (6.8 hours). During the grazing period the milk yield decreased from 20.4 kg in April to 14.4 kg in November.


The existence of extensive records for the impact of night sky brightness on the animals’ behavior in their natural environment shows the need to investigate the level of artificially induced night sky glow (light pollution) in the protected areas.

The results of multi-night sky brightness measurements carried out at the selected sites in Polish mountain areas under various atmospheric conditions are presented. Conducted measurements show a strong impact of the artificial sky glow on the night sky brightness, which is the essence of light pollution. The influence of both distant urban centers, as well as local tourist resorts on the size of studied phenomenon in the mountain areas, which causes both ecological and touristic degradation of these areas was stated. In a few studied areas the level of night sky brightness greatly exceeds the natural one and is comparable to such levels measured inside the cities. It was found that only the southern part of the Polish Carpathians can be considered an area free of light pollution.

Endocrinological and Behavioural Effects of Chronic Fluxilan Administration in Rats

Chronic stress induces changes in the neuroendocrine and neuronal system, including elevation of catecholamines and corticosterone (CORT) levels, and could be an important factor in initial depression. Antidepressants affect monoaminergic neurotransmission and modulate central neuropeptides involved in the coordination of stress response and the control of HPA axis activity. We studied the effects of chronic treatment with fluxilan, a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake, in unstressed controls and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, on behaviour and plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). CUMS did not affect plasma NA, A and ACTH, but elevated plasma CORT content. Plasma concentration of catecholamines after fluxilan administration was significantly increased in control and CUMS group. On the other hand, fluxilan expressed no effect on plasma ACTH and CORT concentrations in control animals, but decreased ACTH and CORT levels in CUMS animals. Behaviourally, fluxilan treated animals displayed enhanced anxiety. The results demonstrate that the anxiogenic effects of chronic fluxilan administration are similar to those reported by many other studies. The findings described here suggest that elevated plasma catecholamines may contribute to an adverse effect of this drug on cardiovascular parameters during antidepressant therapy.

References Arnold W., Ruf T., Reimoser S., Tataruch F., Onderscheka K., Schober F. (2004): Nocturnal hypometabolism as an overwintering strategy of red deer ( Cervus elaphus ). American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 286(1): 174-181. Altmann J. (1974): Observational study of behaviour: sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267. Arzamendia Y., Bonacic C., Vila B. (2010): Behavioural and physiological consequences of capture for shearing of vicunas in Argentina. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 125(3-4): 163-170. Baldock N

, T. L., and Bercovitch, F. B. (2007): The structure of social relationships among captive female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Journal of Comparative Psychology 121(1) : 46-53 . Bejder L., Fletcher D. (1998): A method for testing association patterns of social animals. Animal Behaviour 56: 719-725. Bercovitch F. B., Bashaw M. J., del Castillo S. M. (2006): Sociosexual behavior, male mating tactics, and the reproductive cycle of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis. Hormones and Behavior 50: 314-321. Bercovitch F. B., Berry P. S. M. (2010): Ecological determinants of

chicks and bird density on fear and stress responses in chickens. Archiv für Geflügelkunde 69: 199 – 205. Clément Y., Chapouthier G. (1998): Biological bases of anxiety. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 22: 623 – 633. Clayton D. A. (1978): Socially Facilitated Behavior. The Quarterly Review of Biology 53: 373 – 392. Dawkins M. S. (1989): Time budget in red jungle fowl as a baseline for the assessment of welfare in domestic fowl. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 24: 77 – 80. de Haas E. N., Kops M. S., Bolhuis E., Groothuis T. G. G., Ellen E. D., Rodenburg T. B

References Eltorai A. E. M., Sussman R. W. The "Visitor Effect" and captive black-tailed prairie dog behavior // Der Zoologische Garten. — 2010. — 79 . — P. 109-120. Hoogland J. L. The Black-Tailed Prairie Dog: Social Life of a Burrowing Mammal. — Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Hosey G. R. How does the zoo environment affect the behavior of captive primates? // Applied Animal Behavior Science. — 2005. — 90 . — P. 107-129. King J. A. Social behavior, social organization, and population dynamics in a black-tailed prairie dog town in the Black Hills