Erika Škvareková, Marianna Tomašková, Gabriel Wittenberger and Štefan Zelenák
The purpose of this article is to determine the environmental impacts of underground gasification on the population and to analyze the risk of underground coal gasification (UCG) activities using selected risk assessment methods. Coal gas is a regular part of coal deposits and its extraction also allows the use of coal deposits that cannot be extracted by traditional methods. These technologies bring both positive and negative aspects. The paper points out the risk analysis, hazard identification and assessment during the operation of UCG technology using a risk graph and a risk matrix. Identified risks to workers that cannot be reduced should be taken into consideration and appropriate safeguard should be used. For each risk, it is necessary to inform employees about regular education and training. From worldwide experience with this technology, it is possible to analyze risks in Slovakia. Actual gasification produces polluting gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, tar and ash, and creates a risk that may occur on and under the surface of the site depending on the geological and hydrogeological structure of the deposits. Possible measures to mitigate the adverse effects are proposed for the implementation of this technology. Coal is still one of the main domestic primary energy sources. Currently, only 5 out of 19 deposits in the Slovak Republic are used. Underground gasification could increase the use of Slovak coal and brown coal deposits.
Analysis of Risk of Interruption in Water Supply to Consumers
Water supply system belongs to the so called critical infrastructure of cities, and it should be a priority task for waterworks to ensure the suitable level of its safety. In this paper a method to analyse risk of interruptions in water supply to consumers was proposed. For Rzeszów water supply system maps of risk of interruptions in water supply to consumers have been developed. Results demonstrate the validity of the new tank for reliability of water supply.
The article presents the results of risk analysis associated with nonconformities of aluminium profiles in the process of coating and quality inspection methods used to their detection. Analysis of risk was done based on results of FMEA method. Evaluated quality inspection methods were distinguished based on the term of inspection in the ISO 9000:2005 norm. Manufacturing process of aluminium profile in micro-technological approach was presented. Triple quantification of nonconformities risk based on the FMEA method by using three different approaches was conducted. Analysis of nonconformities risks associated with the use of specific quality inspection methods was done. In the last part the analysis of causes of critical nonconformities, proposals for improvement actions reducing the risk of the critical nonconformities and applied critical quality inspection method were showed.
Prevalence of cognitive disorders is high in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is used for detecting and evaluation of cognitive disorder degree in this patient population. In examined patient population, only 5 (12.5%) of them had normal cognitive function (MoCA ≥26). Mild cognitive impairment (MoCA 18-26) was found in 65.9% (29) patients, while moderate cognitive disorder (MoCA 10-17) was detected in 6 (21.6%) patients. Major cognitive disorder wasn’t detected in examined population. Statistically signifi cant correlation was not established between laboratory parameters and overall MoCA score. Statistically signifi cant correlation, however, was established between MoCA item that evaluates space and time orientation and intermediate secondary hyperparathyroidism and space and time orientation and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis and silent ischemia of the brain are increasing risk of appearance of cognitive disorders in maintenance hemodialysis patients.
Snezana Lukic, Slobodan Jankovic, Katarina Surlan Popovic, Dragic Bankovic, Peter Popovic and Milan Mijailovic
Background. Endovascular embolization is a treatment of choice for the management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, but sometimes is complicated with perianeurysmal oedema. The aim of our study was to establish incidence and outcomes of perianeurysmal oedema after endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, and to reveal possible risk factors for development of this potentially serious complication.
Methods. In total 119 adult patients with endovascular embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysm (performed at Department for Interventional Neuroradiology, Clinical Center, Kragujevac, Serbia) were included in our study. The embolizations were made by electrolite-detachable platinum coils: pure platinum, hydrophilic and combination of platinum and hydrophilic coils. Primary outcome variable was perianeurysmal oedema visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 7, 30 and 90 days after the embolization.
Results. The perianurysmal oedema appeared in 47.6% of patients treated with hydrophilic coils, in 21.6% of patients treated with platinum coils, and in 53.8% of those treated with mixed type of the coils. The multivariate logistic regression showed that variables associated with occurrence of perianeurysmal oedema are volume of the aneurysm, hypertension, diabetes and smoking habit. Hypertension is the most important independent predictor of the perianeurysmal oedema, followed by smoking and diabetes.
Conclusions. The results of our study suggest that older patients with larger unruptured intracranial aneurysms, who suffer from diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and have the smoking habit, are under much higher risk of having perianeurysmal oedema after endovascular coiling.
The process of receiving goods into the warehouse is the first stage of warehouse management. Correct receipt of fast-moving goods is the key element of the storage process as well as of the entire supply chain, which is why it is so important to avoid any disruptions at this stage. In order to identify and analyze the associated risk factors, two quality risk management methods were applied: a risk map and the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) method, whose goal was to determine the magnitude of individual risk factors. The presented findings indicate which risk factors are the most hazardous to the goods receipt process. A correlation was found to exist for the value of goods as well as the continuity of the consequences entailed by the occurrence of a specific factor. The article presents preventive mechanisms as a risk management tool.
Prevalence of cognitive disorders is high in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is used for detecting and evaluation of cognitive disorder degree in this patient population. In examined patient population, only 5 (12.5%) of them had normal cognitive function (MoCA ≥26). Mild cognitive impairment (MoCA 18-26) was found in 65.9% (29) patients, while moderate cognitive disorder (MoCA 10-17) was detected in 6 (21.6%) patients. Major cognitive disorder wasn’t detected in examined population. Statistically significant correlation was not established between laboratory parameters and overall MoCA score. Statistically significant correlation, however, was established between MoCA item that evaluates space and time orientation and intermediate secondary hyperparathyroidism and space and time orientation and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis and silent ischemia of the brain are increasing risk of appearance of cognitive disorders in maintenance hemodialysis patients.
Ivana Raković, Biljana Popovska Jovicic, Andriana Bukonjic, Sara Petrovic, Petar Canovic and Nedim Hamzagic
Pseudomembranous colitis is a frequent nosocomial infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Clostridium difficile infection incidence most frequently increases due to unreasonable antibiotic use and the appearance of new hypervirulent bacterial strains, which leads to prolonged hospitalization and an increase in the total cost of hospital treatment.
This is a retrospective design study conducted at Clinical Centre Kragujevac from January to December 2014. The patient data were obtained from the protocol of the Virological Laboratory and from medical documentation. All statistical analyses were performed using the computer program SPSS. The descriptive statistical data are expressed as percentage values. Continuous variables are expressed as the arithmetic mean with the standard deviation.
Clostridium difficile infection occurred more frequently with elderly patients (123 patients were over 65 years old). Out of 154 patients on antibiotic treatment, 110 patients were treated with a combination of two or more antibiotics from different pharmacological groups. The most represented antibiotics were from the cephalosporin (71.4%) and quinolone (46.3%) groups. A total of 85.8% of the patients used proton pump inhibitors and H2 blockers.
Our results describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with diagnosed Clostridium difficile infection. The most prevalent characteristics (age, antibiotic therapy, PPI and H2 blocker use), which other researchers have also mentioned as risk factors, were present in our study as well.
With regard to drinking water consumers, safety is understood as a probability to avoid threat arising from the consumption of water inconsistent with quality standards or the lack of water. Accordance with the Regulation of the Minister of Health water is safe for human health, if it is free from pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in the amount constituting a potential threat to human health, any substances in quantities hazardous to health and has no aggressive corrosive properties. Water supply reliability means providing stable conditions allowing to meet current and future demand for water in sufficient quantity and with required quality, in convenient time for water consumers and also at a price acceptable by them. In this study consumer (individual) risk rK was defined as the sum of the first kind of risk rKI, associated with possibility of interruptions in water supply and the second kind of risk rKII associated with possibility of consumption of water inconsistent with quality standards. Three-parameter matrix of risk was proposed. For presented method was made an application example based on exploitation data of collective water supply system, which may help to increase safety of water consumers.