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. Toxicol., 32 (8), 702-704, 2008. 7. Collins S.L. et al.: Oral ibuprofen and diclofenac in post-operative pain: a quantitative systemic review. J. Pain, 2, 285-291, 1998. 8. Conger S.A. et al.: Does caffeine added to carbohydrate provide additional ergogenic benefit for endurance? Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc.Metab., 21 (1), 71-84, 2011. 9. Curhan S.G. et al.: Analgesic use and the risk of hearing loss in men.Am. J. Med., 123 (3), 231-237, 2010. 10. Danckwerts M.P., Watt J.G., Moodley I.: The effect of processing variables on the release of ibuprofen and caffeine from

& Toxicology. 2014;4(3): 181-189. [4] Dai J, Sorribs A, Yoshida WY, Williams PG., Sebestenoids A-D, BACE1 inhibitors from Cordia sebestena . J. of Phytochemistry . 2013; 71 (17-18): 2168-2173. [5] Garcia MD,Fernandez MA, Alvarez A, Saenz MT., Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua (Mirtaceae). J. Ethnopharmacol . 2004; (91): 69-73. [6] Kaushik D,Kumar A, Kaushik P, Rana AC., Analgesic and anti-Inflammatory activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Advances inPharmacological Sciences . 2012; 1-6. [7

, Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of some novel 4(3H)-quinazolinone derivatives as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents, Med. Chem. Res. 22 (2013) 440 - 452. [11]. R.V. Coombs, R.P. Danna, M. Denzer, G.E. Hardtmann, B. Huegi, G. Koletar, J. Koletar, H. Ott, E. Jukniewicz, Synthesis and antiinflammatory activity of 1-alkyl-4-aryl-2(1H)-quinazolines and quinazolinethiones, J. Med.Chem. 16 (1973) 1237 - 1245. [12]. R.S. Giri, H.M. Thaker, T. Giordano, J. Williams, D. Rogers, V. Sudersanam, K.K. Vasu, Design, synthesis and characterization of novel 2-(2, 4

, c and helinorbisabone, 24α-Methyl-5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol, Annuithrin, heliangolide, niveusin B and its ethoxy derivatives have been isolated from H. annuus ( 12 , 13 ). There are literatures on the antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihepatotoxic, antimicrobial and antidiarrhoea activities of H. annuus ( 8 , 14 ). The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of methanol extract of Helianthus annuus leaf in rat. Materials and Methods Plant collection and extract preparation The leaf of H. annuus (voucher number; MOUAU/VPP/2015

REFERENCES 1. Medzhitov R. Origin and physiological roles of inflammation. Nature 2008, 454(7203):428-35. doi: http://dx.doi.org10.1038/nature07201 2. Punchard NA, Whelan CJ, Adcock I. J Inflamm. 2004;1:1. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9255-1-1 3. Adedapo AA, Falayi OO, Oyagbemi AA. Evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, phytochemical and toxicological properties of the methanolic leaf extract of commercially processed Moringa oleifera in some laboratory animals. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2015; 26(5):491–9. doi: http

.foodchem.2005.05.024. [15]. J.P. Folley, J.A. Crown, Supercritical fluid chromatography for the analysis of natural products. Recent advances in phytochemistry, Helen A Edition, Stattford, 1991. [16]. R. Koster, M. Anderson, E.J. De Beer, Acetic acid for analgesic screening, Federation Proceedings 18 (1959) 412-417. [17]. K.W. Lee, Y.J. Kim, H.J. Lee, C.Y. Lee, Cocoa has more phenolic phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (2003) 7292-7295. Doi: 10.1021/jf0344385. [18]. H. Najjaa, M. Neffati, S

. Balasco, B. Bizzarri, W. Filippelli, A. Filippelli and L. Gagliardi, Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic of 4,6-disubstituted 3-cyano-2-aminopyridines, Eur. J. Med. Chem. 34 (1999) 245-254; DOI: 10.1016/S0223-5234(99)80057-9. K. Ueno, A. Sasaki, K. Kawano, T. Okabe, N. Kitazawa, K. Takahashi, N. Yamamoto and Y. Suzuki, Preparation of Piperazinylisoquinolines and Analogs as Serotonin Antagonists, 15 Apr 1999 Int. Appl. WO 99 180 77; ref. Chem. Abstr. 130 (1999) 311813b. R. C. Elderfied and T. P. King, Benzopyrylium salt by hydrocarbon elimination from

analgesics. Psychopharmacol. 1991; 104(1): 35-44. Winter EA, Nuss GV. Anti-Inflammatory and antipyretic activities of indomethacin. J. Pharmacol. Exptll Ther. 1963; 141: 369-376. Tijani AY, Guru MOU, Salawu OA. Anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrhoeal properties of Faidherbia albida in rats. Afr J Biotechnol. 2008; 7(6): 696-700. Newbould BB. Chemotherapy of arthritis induced in rats by mycobacterial adjuvant. Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 1963; 21(1):127-136. Singh S, Majumdar DK. Effect of fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum against experimentally induced arthritis and

References [1]. D. Wang and F. Gao, Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities, Chemistry Central Journal 7 (2013) 95. Doi: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-95 [2]. V. Chandregowda, A.K. Kush, G. Chandrasekara Reddy, Synthesis and in vitro antitumor activities of novel 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives, European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 44 (2009) 3046 - 3055. Doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2008.07.023. [3]. V. Alagarsamy, V.R. Solomon, K. Dhanahal, Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of some 3-phenyl-2-substituted-3H-quinazolin-4-one as analgesic, anti

References Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics , 7th ed. (Eds. R.J. Flower, S. Moncada and J.R. Vane), MacMillan, New York 1985, p. 695. P. Rani, V.K. Srivastava and A. Kumar, Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of heterocyclic indole derivatives, Eur. J. Med. Chem.   39 (2004) 449-452; DOI: 10.1016j.egmech 2003.11.002. S.M. Sondhi, M. Dinodia and A. Kumar, Synthesis, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity evaluation of some amidine and hydrazone derivatives, Bioorg Med. Chem.   14 (2006) 4657-4663; DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2006