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/min of travel speed for magnesium alloy AZ31 and 2,000 rpm of rotation speed and 50 mm/min of travel speed for aluminum alloy 2024, respectively. The dwelling time was same for all joints and it was 10 s. Tool plunging in and out stages were realized with tool feed rate of 5 mm/min. Visual evaluation of the joints showed that they were done properly, they have no visible defects, and the face and root surfaces were smooth and uniform. A small flash on the surface of the weld face was allowed. 3 Analysis of Force Diagrams There are three stages in FSW process: plunging


The article compared the results of high cycle fatigue tests in samples of aluminum alloy 2024-T4, which is used in aircraft construction, especially for highly loaded structural elements, including for plating and fuselage frames and girders rotor blades of helicopters - with results available in the literature. The tests were performed on cylindrical samples, of a parallel and perpendicular orientation relative to the "direction of embodiment" or the rolling direction of the blank sheet metal with a coefficient of asymmetry cycle R = −1. Material for the study was collected from the production line design elements PZL-130 Orlik TC-II. There have been a description of the analytical results in the form of Morrow equations. The results were referred to the respective curves contained in a database of material U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration. There have been a presentation the transformation method of S-N curves for different stress ratio R, stress concentration factors Kt and safety factors βN and βσ.


A comparison of the influence of two alloy pre-treatments and temperature treatments on the formation and composition of zirconium based conversion coating on the AA2024 alloy has been performed. The investigation employed mass changes, atomic force microscopy (AFM), XRD dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and electrochemical tests by open circuit potential (OCP) measurements. Pre-treatment using only alkaline etching is called alkaline pre-treatment. When alkaline etching is followed by de-oxidization in a phosphoric acid solution the process is called acidic pre-treatment. Conversion coatings were formed in Pragokor BL. IR analysis revealed the formation of a phosphate on the alloy surface. EDX analysis showed Mg dissolution. The Zr content increased with the temperature of the conversion coating formation. Both pre-treatment methods provided a phosphate layer on the alloy surface.

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fatigue crack from hole and micromechanism fracture lamer sheet aluminium alloy 2024-T3. Military University of Technology WAT Bulletin , 56(4), 37-54. Halliday, M. D., Cooper, C., Poole, P., & Bowen, P. (2003). On predicting small fatigue crack growth and fatigue life from long crack data in 2024 aluminium alloy. International Journal of Fatigue , 25(8), 709-718. Kocanda, D., Kocanda, S., & Kulec, P. (2005). Short fatigue crack in avia aluminum alloy 2024-T3. Scientific Papers. Mechanics [in Polish]. Technical University of Opole, 83(2), 83-90. Li, X. D. (1996

. Casting of wrought aluminum-based alloys. Die Casting Engineer , March 2004 , 52 - 56. [5] L. Yanlei, L. Yuandong, L. Chun, W. Huihui. Microstructure characteristics and solidification behavior of wrought aluminum alloy 2024 rheo-diecast with self-inoculation method. China Foundry 2012 (9), No. 4, 328 - 336. [6] H. Guo, X. Yang, M. Zhang. Microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of rheoformed wrought aluminum alloy 2024. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 2008 (18), 555 - 561. [7] U.A. Curle. Semi-solid near-net shape rheocasting of

, T. Zaharinie, G. Min. Temperature effects on material behaviour of aerospace aluminium alloys for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. J Aerosp Eng. 2010 (23), 124 -128. [5] T.N. Chakherlou, M.J. Razavi, A.B. Aghdam, B. Abazadeh. An experimental investigation of the bolt clamping force and friction effect on the fatigue behavior of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 double shear lap joint. Mater. Des. 2011 (32), 4641 - 4649. [6] T.N. Chakherlou, B. Abazadeh. Investigating clamping force variations in Al2024-T3 interference fitted bolted joints under static and cyclic loading

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Amount of Heat Generated During Friction Stir Welding: Application on Plates Made of Aluminium Alloy 2024 T351 , InTech, 11, 2012. [29] Press W.H., Teukolsky S.A., Vetterling W.T., Flannery B.P., Numerical recipes in fortran , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993.