Analysis of Ecology of a Little Known White Oak Quercus Polycarpa Schur, Using Geobiocoenological Typology
Quercus polycarpa Schur is a little known oak species of the Sessile Oak aggregate (Quercus petraea s. lat.). Different habitats were studied using geobiocoenological typology system in order to investigate its ecology. In total, 65 experimental plots were set in forest stands with Q. polycarpa in the main storey in 12 protected areas situated in south-east of the Czech Republic. Ecological conditions, basic tree parameters and representation of Q. polycarpa within other oak species were evaluated on each plot. The mean values of height, height of life crown setting, stem and crown diameter were related to sub-categories of geobiocoenological system and compared by one-way ANOVA and Scheffé post-hoc test. It has been found out that Q. polycarpa grow in a high number in the 2nd altitudinal zone. It often occurs in a variety of habitats with different hydric and trophic conditions. As expected, the lowest values of measured parameters were found in the dry hydric range, this species reaches the highest values in the normal hydric and mesic ranges.
Extreme Radial Growth Reaction of Norway Spruce Along An Altitudinal Gradient in the Šumava Mountains
Extreme radial growth reactions were analyzed over a 79-year period (1922-2000) to compare response of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) along an altitudinal gradient (376-1221 m a.s.l.) in the Šumava Mountains, the Czech Republic. Extreme growth events were defined as pointer years, when an average percentage of the site pointer years reached at least 50% strength observed at the relevant altitudinal zone (low < ca. 700 m; middle ca. 700-950 m, high > ca. 950 m). The comparison of the pointer years showed a specific pattern for altitudinal zones (Low: negative pointer years 2000, 1992, 1984, 1976, 1971 and positive 1997, 1975, 1960, 1949, 1932, 1926; middle: negative 2000, 1992, 1976 and positive 1997, 1989, 1978; high: negative 1996, 1980, 1974, 1965 and positive 1989, 1963, 1927). Negative pointer years were usually induced by summer drought at low elevations and by wet-cold summer at high altitudinal zone. These two main limiting factors were probably combined at the middle altitudinal zone. Detailed understanding of the extreme tree ring pattern along the altitudinal and geographical scale may be used as one of the additional indicators of dendrochronological dating and provenance identification of spruce sample among altitudinal zones in the Šumava Mountains.
The current article will attempt to confirm that Polish post-mining areas are characterized by high cognitive and aesthetic values and that they have great geotourism potential, which has been little used so far. Tourism is regarded to be one of the most dynamically growing sectors of the global economy and is a phenomenon that occurs in the landscapes of all ecological and altitudinal zones. Geotourism is among the relatively recent types of tourism. Poland is a highly attractive country for geotourism. The aim of this article is to analyze the distribution and size of post-mining areas in Poland and, based on these analyses, to assess the geotourist potential of selected post-mining regions. Based on the distribution of natural resource mining sites and their potential and actual use in geotourism, the authors selected 20 actual and potential geotourist regions in Poland. These regions were divided into three basic categories based on their attractiveness.
Miocene vegetation pattern and climate change in the northwestern Central Paratethys domain (Czech and Slovak Republic)
The case study area covers the slopes of the tectonically quiet European platform and foreland of the tectonically active Carpathian mountain chain (Carpathian Foredeep and Vienna Basin). Therefore the research on pollen spectra mirrors not only the evolution of landscape in two areas with different geodynamics, but also climatic changes in the Central Paratethys domain during the studied time interval. According to the pollen data, the Early to Middle Miocene vegetation reflects subtropical climate with very mild (negligible) cooling events during this period. This is indicated by common occurrence of thermophilous taxa in the whole sedimentary record. The Middle Miocene landscape evolution, conditioned by uplift of the Carpathian mountain chain and subsidence of adjacent lowlands, led to commencement of the altitudinal zonation. The terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems confirm a subtropical climate (Miocene Climatic Optimum, Mi3 event) with some possible long term changes in humidity. The Late Miocene paleogeographical changes, but also general climatic oscillations in the northwestern Central Paratethys realm, resulted in decrease of the number of thermophilous taxa during this time (change in latitudinal position of the vegetation cover). Variously high mountain relief of the uplifted mountain chains (altitudinal zonality) created ideal conditions for mixed mesophytic forests (to open woodland — open grassland type), still with presence of evergreen taxa. A subtropical climate with gradual transition to warm temperate climatic conditions is supposed on the basis of the reconstructed vegetation cover.
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