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Marek Kułażyński, Andrzej Surma and Jerzy Walendziewski
Application of combustible wastes for the alternative fuels production
The information on the quantity of various types of combustible wastes registered in the Lower Silesia Marshal Office over the 2003 - 2005 years (waste codes - 02, 03, 04, 07, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19 and 20) was collected and then the quantities of individual wastes from different sources were summarized depending on the waste sort i.e. waste paper (cellulose), plastics, timber, textiles and rubber. The physiochemical properties and the chemical composition of the impurities in the selected waste sorts were determined and discussed while taking into account their usefulness and the necessary treatment operations for the alternative fuels production.
The subject of this paper is to analyse the influence of moisture on selected technical and combustion characteristics of alternative fuels. The analyses are conducted on the basis of analyses of samples of alternative fuels simulating states of the fuel in expected operating conditions, focusing on the identification of potential operational risks. The final part consists of a set of recommended measures to ensure the operational safety of the practical use of alternative fuels based on the results of the analysis.
 Girdhar Joshi, K. Jitendra, Pandey, Sravendra Rana, Devendra S. Rawat. Challenges and opportunities for the application of biofuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2017 (79), 850 - 866.
 H. M. Mahmudul, F. Y. Hagos, R. Mamat, A. AbdulAdam, W. F. W. Ishak, R. Alenezi. Production, characterization and performance of biodiesel as an alternativefuel in diesel engines - A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2017 (72), 497 - 509.
 Hakan Caliskan. Environmental and
Lamas M.I., Rodríguez C.G., Telmo J. and Rodríguez J.D.
The current restrictions on emissions from marine engines, particularly sulphur oxides (SOx ), nitrogen oxides (NOx ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ), are compelling the shipping industry to a change of tendency. In the recent years, many primary and secondary reduction techniques have been proposed and employed in marine engines. Nevertheless, the increasingly restrictive legislation makes it very difficult to continue developing efficient reduction procedures at competitive prices. According to this, the paper presents the possibility to employ alternative fuels. A numerical model was developed to analyze the combustion process and emissions using oil fuel, natural gas and hydrogen. A commercial marine engine was studied, the Wärtsilä 6L 46. It was found, that hydrogen is the cleanest fuel regarding CO2 , hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). Nevertheless, it is very expensive for marine applications. Natural gas is cheaper and cleaner than fuel oil regarding CO2 and CO emissions. Still, natural gas emits more NOx and HC than oil fuel. SOx depends basically on the sulphur content of each particular fuel.
Özgür Kabadurmuş, Mehmet Serdar Erdoğan, Yiğitcan Özkan and Mertcan Köseoğlu
Distribution is one of the major sources of carbon emissions and this issue has been addressed by Green Vehicle Routing Problem (GVRP). This problem aims to fulfill the demand of a set of customers using a homogeneous fleet of Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFV) originating from a single depot. The problem also includes a set of Alternative Fuel Stations (AFS) that can serve the AFVs. Since AFVs started to operate very recently, Alternative Fuel Stations servicing them are very few. Therefore, the driving span of the AFVs is very limited. This makes the routing decisions of AFVs more difficult. In this study, we formulated a multi-objective optimization model of Green Vehicle Routing Problem with two conflicting objective functions. While the first objective of our GVRP formulation aims to minimize total CO2 emission, which is proportional to the distance, the second aims to minimize the maximum traveling time of all routes. To solve this multi-objective problem, we used ɛ-constraint method, a multi-objective optimization technique, and found the Pareto optimal solutions. The problem is formulated as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model in IBM OPL CPLEX. To test our proposed method, we generated two hypothetical but realistic distribution cases in Izmir, Turkey. The first case study focuses on an inner-city distribution in Izmir, and the second case study involves a regional distribution in the Aegean Region of Turkey. We presented the Pareto optimal solutions and showed that there is a tradeoff between the maximum distribution time and carbon emissions. The results showed that routes become shorter, the number of generated routes (and therefore, vehicles) increases and vehicles visit a lower number of fuel stations as the maximum traveling time decreases. We also showed that as maximum traveling time decreases, the solution time significantly decreases.
The research is devoted to the problem of the assessment of the integrated projects investment efficiency, energy saving and energy efficiency measures for social and municipal buildings within the course aimed at the reduction of the natural gas consumption and its replacement by alternative fuel types, that is important for a number of European countries, and Ukraine in particular. The objectives of the research are as follows: comparative assessment of the quality of integrated and element-by-element approaches to energy saving encompassing investment, environmental, social and organizational aspects; the formulation of practical recommendations to improve the efficiency of development and implementation of integrated programs in the field of energy saving and energy efficiency. It is proposed to use the methodology of system analysis with the elements of deduction that is practical and that allows to set key factors that influence the processes of energy replacement and energy efficiency increase, as well as factors that constrain them.