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The main objective of the study is to determine which of the chosen environmental factors and selected groups of such factors alter the time of natural menopause in women living in the Małopolska region. Two hundred and thirty two women aged over 40 years were investigated in a cross-sectional survey in Cracow and the surrounding area. Among them 165 women who had undergone natural menopause and had their last bleeding at least 12 month prior to the interview were chosen. To estimate the age at menopause, a retrospective method was used. Univariate and multivariate methods were employed to estimate association of age at natural menopause with factors of interest. Mean age at natural menopause was 50.32 years (SD=3.82). Among biological and socio-economic factors, only the length of the reproductive period (H=106.07; p=0.000) and the age at the time of the first birth (R=0.18; p=0.020) turned out to be associated with the age at natural menopause in the studied group. The length of the smoking period (R=-0.17; p=0.031), the amount (F=3.25; p=0.04) and frequency of alcohol consumed (H=6.95; p=0.031) were the environmental factors related to the time of menopause. Women who drank more and smoked over longer period of time were likely to experience menopause earlier than their less drinking and shorter smoked counterparts. Three factors taken together, frequency of smoking, alcoholic intake and the age the tobacco addiction started (F=3.87; p=0.050), as well as the consumption of strong alcoholic drinks and the early start of tobacco addiction (F=2.85; p=0.026) were significantly related to the occurrence of natural menopause

Buyzere ML, Delanghe JR. (2013). Non oxidative ethanol metabolites as a measure of alcohol intake. Clin Chim Acta 415: 322-329. Nanau RM, Neuman MG. (2015). Biomolecules and Biomarkers Used in Diagnosis of Alcohol Drinking and in Monitoring Therapeutic Interventions. Biomolecules 5: 1339-1385. Nyamathi A, Cohen A, Marfi see M, Shoptaw S, Greengold B, de Castro V, George D, Leake B. (2009). Correlates of alcohol use among methadonemaintained adults. Drug Alcohol Depend 101: 124-127. Pennings EJ, Leccese AP, Wolff FA. (2002). Eff ects of concurrent use of alcohol and

progressive cerebrovascular disease among elderly patients. HS is the least treatable and leading cause of acquired disability and mortality. Genetic mechanisms play an important role in its development. It is therefore necessary to develop HS-specific therapeutics and effective primary prevention strategies. Identification of HS-related genes is a promising direction in novel HS prevention ( 11 ). Study of genetic mechanisms of HS risk factors, including hypertension, heavy alcohol intake and anticoagulant treatment, is also important ( 12 ). The underlying mechanism of HS


AIM: Purpose of the study was to recognize specific migraine triggers in adolescents.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted on 20,917 adolescents in Serbia.

RESULTS: Lack of sleep, passive tobacco smoking, alcohol intakes, and "not eating in time" are triggers that provoke migraine in adolescents.

CONCLUSION: Avoiding migraine triggers in 68% of adolescents reduced drug therapy for 75%.

Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqeous Leaf Extract of Swietenia Mahogani (Maliaceae) in Chronic Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

Aim. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extract of Swietenia mahogany (Maliaceae) in chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

Material and Methods. The animals were given increasing concentrations (10% ethanol (v/v) in water for 1week, 20% (v/v) for another 2 weeks and 30% (v/v) for 9 weeks) per os daily. Treatment with the extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) was instituted 6 h after given the alcohol for the same period the alcohol intake lasted. Thereafter, the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were assayed in the serum. The levels of other biochemical markers of organ damage such as total bilirubin and creatinine, as well as pentobarbitone sleeping time were determined. Histological examination of the liver was also performed.

Results. The extract at all doses significantly (p<0.05) reduced the serum activities of ALT, AST, AP, serum levels of bilirubin and creatinine in comparison with the negative control that received only alcohol. The duration of pentobarbital induced hypnosis was also significantly shortened. The histopathological result showed significant (p<0.05) protection in the extract treated groups when compared with the group that received alcohol alone.

Conclusion. The extract displayed significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotective activity in the model used in this study.


Studies have documented independent contribution of sympathetic activation to the cardiovascular disease continuum. Hypertension is one of the leading modifiable factors. Most if not all the benefit of antihypertensive treatment depends on blood pressure lowering, regardless how it is obtained. Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains uncontrolled in spite of the concurrent use of three antihypertensive drugs of different classes. Ideally, one of the three drugs should be a diuretic, and all drugs should be prescribed at optimal dose amounts. Poor adherence to antihypertensive therapy, undiscovered secondary causes (e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, renal artery stenosis), and lifestyle factors (e.g. obesity, excessive sodium intake, heavy alcohol intake, various drug interactions) are the most common causes of resistant hypertension. Cardio(reno)vascular morbidity and mortality are significantly higher in resistant hypertensive than in general hypertensive population, as such patients are typically presented with a long-standing history of poorly controlled hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment is needed to avoid further end-organ damage to prevent cardiorenovascular remodeling. Treatment strategy includes lifestyle changes, adding a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, treatment adherence in cardiovascular prevention and, in case of failure to control blood pressure, renal sympathetic denervation or baroreceptor activation therapy. The comparative outcomes in resistant hypertension deserve better understanding. In this review, the most current approaches to resistant hypertension and cardiovascular risk based on the available literature evidence will be discussed.


Alcohol dependence and its treatment is not an exactly resolved problem. Based on the EZOP [Epidemiology of Mental Disorders and Accessibility of Mental Health Care] survey, which included a regular analysis of the incidence of mental disorders in the population of adult Polish citizens, we were able to estimate that the problem of alcohol abuse in any period of life affects even 10.9% of the population aged 18-64 years, and those addicted represent 2.2% of the country’s population. The typical symptoms of alcohol dependence according to ICD-10, include alcohol craving, impaired ability to control alcohol consumption, withdrawal symptoms which appear when a heavy drinker stops drinking, alternating alcohol tolerance, growing neglect of other areas of life, and persistent alcohol intake despite clear evidence of its destructive effect on life. At the moment, the primary method of alcoholism treatment is psychotherapy. It aims to change the patient’s habits, behaviours, relationships, or the way of thinking. It seems that psychotherapy is irreplaceable in the treatment of alcoholism, but for many years now attempts have been made to increase the effectiveness of alcoholism treatment with pharmacological agents. In this article we will try to provide a description of medications which help patients sustain abstinence in alcoholism therapy with particular emphasis on baclofen.


Background. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a hereditary metabolic aberration resulting from a partial defect in the activity of the enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBDG) during the course of haeme synthesis. Diabetic metabolism may attenuate the episodes of porphyria related symptoms.

Case report. Our subject (male; age 75) was hospitalized one week after onset of diffuse abdominal pain and constipation and overt type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The patient’s long history of alcohol intake with acute alcohol consumption 12 days before admission, in the presence of abdominal pain with spectacular remission after oral administration of 5% glucose solution, accompanied by a 2.5 fold increase of urinary porphobilinogen with normal values for porphyrins and urinary lead, and normal full blood count establishes the diagnosis of AIP.

Conclusion We describe a case of AIP probably triggered by acute alcohol consumption, with neurovisceral dominant clinical picture mimicking an acute abdomen. Late disease occurrence as first acute episode at older age accompanied by overt type 2 DM, suggests a latent type of AIP in our patient. The appropriate recognition of latent AIP cases in proband’s offspring prevents unnecessary blind surgery when repeated episodes of unexplained abdominal pain occur.



soriasis is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Several tools such as Framingham score (FRS) and Ramathibodi-Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (RAMA-EGAT) score have been developed to predict the 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and death. However, there are only few studies determine CAD risk using FRS and RAMA-EGAT score in Asian patients with psoriasis.


To investigate the risk of CAD events using the FRS and RAMA-EGAT score in Thai patients with psoriasis.


Predictive factors that associated with intermediate and high risk (≥10%) of CAD events within 10-year were determined. Variables, including age, sex, blood pressure, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, diabetes mellitus, waist circumference, smoking, and alcohol intake were used to calculate scores.


Of 145 patients with psoriasis and a mean age of 48.1 ± 14.1 years, 72 patients were men. Using FRS and RAMA-EGAT, 25% and 13% of the patients, respectively had a ≥10% risk of developing CAD events. A higher risk of CAD was predicted when severe psoriasis was considered. The duration of disease and treatment were associated with an increased risk of CAD using the FRS and RAMA-EGAT score by multivariate analysis.


A substantial portion of our patients had a CAD risk ≥10%, with significant relationship with duration of disease and treatment. Early screening of CAD and appropriate treatments of psoriasis may be helpful for preventing CAD in patients with psoriasis.


Background: Adopting a healthy lifestyle, including a healthy diet, weight control, regular exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol limitation, plays an important role in treating high blood pressure and cardiovascular and chronic diseases.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate adherence to the DASH diet in relation to the occurrence of high blood pressure and chronic disease risk factors, in a group of people from Tîrgu Mureș.

Material and methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on a food frequency and lifestyle questionnaire applied to a group of 2,010 people aged 15–92 years from Tîrgu Mureș.

Results: Individuals over the age of 45 had higher DASH scores (Q4, Q5) compared to subjects younger than 40 years (Q1 and Q2, p <0.001). An important percentage (19.3%) of subjects who preferred a meat-based diet (Q3) had significantly larger abdominal circumference (mean 92.2 ± 0.91 cm, p <0.001). An association between pure alcohol intake (mean 5.6 ± 0.43 g) and an unhealthy diet (Q1) was observed, compared to the average 1.7 ± 19 g of alcohol consumed by subjects with a healthy diet (Q5), alcohol consumption decreasing with an increasing DASH score (p <0.001).

Conclusion: This study shows that individuals diagnosed with at least one cardiovascular risk factor had a higher adherence to the DASH diet than individuals with no cardiovascular risk factors, most likely due to the fact that diagnosed individuals had changed their eating behavior and lifestyle from the time of diagnosis, with a positive impact on treatment outcomes and quality of life.