Few-body problem attract many scientists for a long time in celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy. The restricted three-body problem and four-body problem with many perturbations like different shapes of the primaries, resonance, variable mass of the primaries as well as infinitesimal body, Coriolis and centrifugal forces, Pointing-Robertson drag, solar radiation pressure and albedo effects etc., have been studied by many scientists. Simó [ 36 ] investigated the linear stability of the relative Lagrangian solutions in the four
Caputa, Z. (2007). Diversity of albedo and longwave exchange and radiative efficiency coefficients on the Błędów Desert area (in Polish). Pamiętnik Puławski, 144, 35–44.
Caputa, Z. & Leśniok M. (2011). Incoming shortwave solar radiation in Sosnowiec (2000–2009) (in Polish). Prace i Studia Geograficzne , 47, 393–400.
Caputa, Z. & Wojkowski J. (2013). Influence of solar radiation on air and soil temperature in the Cracow Upland (in Polish). Prądnik Prace i Materiały Muzeum im. prof. Władysława Szafera , 23, 65–74.
Caputa, Z. & Wojkowski J. (2015
. Global cooling increasing world-wide urban albedo to offset CO2. Climate Change 2009:95(3–4). doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9515-9
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 Joarder A. R., Ahmed Z. N., Price A., Mourshed M. A Simulation assessment of the height of light shelves to enhance daylighting quality in tropical office buildings under overcast sky conditions in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Presented at 11th IBPSA Conference, Glasgow, Scotland, 2009.
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Oleson, K.W., G. B. Bonan, C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, Y. Jin, and A. H. Strahler (2003), Assessment of global climate model land surface albedo using MODIS data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(8), 1443, doi:10.1029/2002GL016749.
Önol, B., Semazzi, F.H.M. (2009). Regionalization of climate change simulations over the
The need to house population in urban areas is expected to rise to 66% in 2050, according to United Nations. The replacement of natural permeable green areas with concrete constructions and hard surfaces will be noticed. The densification of existing built-up areas is responsible for the decreasing vegetation, which results in the lack of evapotranspiration cooling the air. Such decreasing vegetation causes urban heat islands. Since roofs and pavements have a very low albedo, they absorb a lot of sunlight. Several studies have shown that natural and permeable surfaces, as in the case of green roofs, can play crucial role in mitigating this negative climate phenomenon and providing higher efficiency for the building, leading to savings. Such as water saving, what is the main idea of this research.
The paper is focused on the solar irradiance estimation in clear-sky conditions and an aerosol-loaded atmosphere. Two parametric models developed by our group and three empirical models are tested. The estimates of the parametric models are based on three atmospheric parameters (ozone, nitrogen dioxide and water vapor column content) and the aerosol properties quantified by means of several specific parameters (Ångström turbidity coefficient, single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor). The empirical models contain no inputs for aerosol properties. Data collected from 10 stations were used to test the models. The inputs for the parametric models were retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network - AERONET. Global and diffuse solar irradiance data at high-quality standards were retrieved from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network BSRN. A comparative analysis of the models’ accuracy in estimating clear-sky solar irradiance is discussed from the perspective of aerosol proprieties.
Petre Vasiluta, Ileana Ioana Cofaru, Nicolae Florin Cofaru and Dragos Laurentiu Popa
The study shown in this paper presents the behavior of geomembranes used at the ecological landfills. The influences of the solar radiations has a great importance regarding the correct mounting of the geomembranes. The mathematical model developed for the determination anytime and anywhere in the world for the next values and parameters: apparent solar time, solar declination, solar altitude, solar azimuth and incidence angle, zone angle, angle of sun elevation, solar declination, solar constant, solar flux density, diffuse solar radiation, global radiation, soil albedo, total radiant flux density and relational links of these values. The results of this model was used for creations an AutoCAD subroutines useful for choosing the correct time for correct mounting anywhere of the geomembranes
Study the Third-Body Perturbation. The Scientific World Journal.
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1. Skubacz, K. (2015). Measurements of low doses with Panasonic dosimeters. Algorithm and tests. Radiat. Meas ., 75 , 9–14. DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2015.02.020.
2. International Organization for Standardization. (1996). X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy – Part 1: Radiation characteristics and production methods. ISO 4037-1-1996. Geneva.
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Antoni Kuźniar, Stanisław Twardy, Agnieszka Kowalczyk and Marek Kostuch
An assessment of the water requirements of a mountain pasture sward in the Polish Western Carpathians
The water requirements of the pasture sward using the Penman-Monteith method (FAO-56), which is seldom applied in Poland, was assessed. The reference crop evapotranspiration ETo from a hypothetical grass crop with an assumed crop height of 0.12 m, a fixed surface resistance of 70 s·m-1 and an albedo of 0.23, was used. These assumptions are similar under conditions of ruminant grazing. ETo was computed by using meteorological data from 43 weather stations. The crop evapotranspiration ETc is the product of ETo, and single crop coefficient Kc. The differences between precipitation and ETo and ETc (climatic water balances) were determined for mountain pastures. The results were summarised form of a table and maps of isohyets and isolines elaborated by applying the Geographic Information System techniques (Arc View 9) with the data interpolated by the geostatic method (Kriging).