Wojciech Dzięgielewski, Urszula Kaźmierczak, Andrzej Kulczycki and Dariusz Ozimina
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Dariusz Cwik, Mirosław Kowalski and Pawel Steżycki
The article describes the problem of the operation of turbine jet, adaptive engine work on the natural environment. In particular, the analysis of noise generated by turbine jet engines has been made. It points out possible directions of noise decrease with particular emphasis upon structural changes within the engines, the task of which is to reduce the noise mission. The example of the modernization is based upon the “bypass” type of one-flow turbine jet engine. The essay contains theoretical basis of calculation of the noise emission level and the results, which graphically indicate a relative level of noise of this type of engine depending upon the amount of discharged air and the diameter of the discharge nozzle and the radius, upon the basis of which the noise level is determined. This work also includes a comparison of the relative noise level of this type of engine with regard to one-flow turbine engine equipped with the function of air discharge to the environment and with regard to two-flow turbine jet engine equipped with air stream flow mixing device. The use of low-emission combustion chambers in the “bypass” turbine engine was indicated. This allowed addressing the problem of emissions of toxic exhaust components by this type of aircraft engines. At the same time, the dependence of this emission related to the mass of fuel used on the engine's thrust range was indicated. The article was concluded with a short summary.
Michał Gęca, Konrad Pietrykowski and Karol Rosiński
This paper presents the methodology and investigation of the sound power level produced by a radial piston aircraft engine operating at varied speeds. The research model aircraft engine of a maximum power of 5.5 kW with a two-bladed airscrew was placed on a test bend. Its sound power level was calculated from the sound pressure level measured at 9 measurement points distributed on a hemispherical surface in a confined space in line with PN-EN 3744. Mean sound power generated by the ASP FS400AR engine is 96 dB at idle (2,880 rpm) and 105 dB at a cruising speed (4,740 rpm). Accordingly, it can be concluded that a sound level meter registered a higher sound power level at the points in front of the model aircraft engine than at the points behind it, whereas the lowest sound power level was registered directly above the engine.
The analysis of work parameters of a turboprop engine fuelled by various fuels was done in the article. The turboprop engine model was presented in the beginning. The main feature of this model is description of the flow in the engine as semi-perfect gas model. By this way, the change of fumes chemical composition influence the gas properties as heat constant and isentropic index are determined. Next energy balance of a compressor and turbine was analysed and turbine pressure drop was evaluated. Finally, engine output power was determined. It was done for selected fuels, which could be applied in the aero engines. The results of analyse were presented in the tables and charts and discussed. Summary of the test results with the results for contemporary applied fuel allows drawing the conclusions about the turboprop engine performance change by various fuel application. Main of them refers to the point that higher combustion heat value of fuel and higher heat constant of fumes cause better engine work conditions By this way the hydrogen seems to be perspective fuel of future, because its combustion heat value is three times JET A-1 and by this way it is possible the engine fuel consumption will be lower.
An experiment in cooling of gas turbine nozzle guide vanes was modelled numerically with a conjugate viscous-flow and solid-material heat conduction solver. The nozzle vanes were arranged in a cascade and operated in high-pressure, hot-temperature conditions, typical for first turbine stage in a flow of controlled-intensity, artificially-generated turbulence. The vane cooling was internal, accomplished by 10 channels in each vane with cooling-air flow. Numerical simulations of the experiment were conducted applying two turbulence models of the k-omega family: k-omega-SST and Transition SST implemented in the ANSYS Fluent solver. Boundary conditions for the simulations were set based on conditions of experiment: total pressures and total temperature on inlet to cascade, static pressure on the outlet of the cascade and heat flux on the surface of cooling channels. The values of heat flux on the surface of cooling channels were evaluated based on Nusselt numbers obtained from experiment and varied in time until steady-state conditions were obtained. Two test cases, one with subcritical outlet flow, and another one, with supercritical outlet flow were simulated. The result of experiment – distributions of pressure, surface temperature, and heat transfer coefficients on the vane external surface were compared to results of numerical simulations. Sensitivity of the vane surface temperatures and heat transfer coefficients to turbulence models and to boundary-condition values of parameters of turbulence models: turbulence energy and specific dissipation of turbulence energy was also studied.
Jarosław Sarnecki, Bartosz Gawron and Jadwiga Głąb
The publication subject is the issue related to the assessment of phenomena occurring during the jet fuel thermal degradation process. The research in this article was carried out on a specialised laboratory station, according to the author’s own methodology. The assessment of the fuel degradation process was conducted on the basis of an analysis of the content of deposits collected on filters with a diameter of 0.8 µm and 3.0 µm. The filters were additionally analysed under a microscope. The results indicate that a degree and intensity of the fuel thermal degradation process are affected by the technology of the tested fuel and the test temperature. The article was prepared on the basis of the results obtained within the framework of the research project No. 2011/01/D/ST8/06567 funded by National Science Centre.