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, Qiua S, Zhoua W. Establishing a scientific basis for fertilizer recommendations for wheat in China: Yield response and agronomic efficiency. Field Crop Res. 2013;140:1-8. 10. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 889/2008 of 5 September 2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products with regard to organic production, labelling and control. Official Journal of the European Union. 2008;L 250:1-84. 11. Connor DJ. Organic agriculture cannot feed the world. Field Crops Res

Abstract

The paper looks at estimation of the agronomic efficiency (AE) for various crop mixtures at varying levels of fertility management. To evaluate the concept, three trials using different cropping patterns and fertility rates were reviewed by calculating and comparing the relative yield and agronomic efficiency of the main crop. AE was higher in the mixtures compared to the sole crop in all the trials, and in the mixtures while efficiency between the control and the fertility levels employed were high, those between the fertility levels were not as high and increased at a reducing rate, sometimes tending to be constant. These responses gave rise to situations similar to a quadratic response and could therefore permit for optimum fertility levels for crop mixtures to be predicted. This therefore means that sustainable intensification is possible under small scale production systems as increase in efficiency was higher at lower fertilizer rates compared to the higher rates. Assessment of AE for crop mixture could also result in staggered recommended production practices, thus discouraging the excessive use of fertilizers – chemical or organic – and cut cost of production, reduce the pollution of the environment with its attendant consequences while production costs could be within reach of the small scale farmers. Small scale family farmers seeking alternative methods of soil fertility management could be encouraged to undertake the clipping/thinning management of companion leguminous crops as such measures could enhance their productivity as the estimation of AE has shown in these investigations. The practice of either clipping or thinning of the leguminous companion crop is similar or close to current production practices employed by these farmers and therefore should not be difficult to adapt and adopt.

savannah: The role of leguminous fodder crops in maintaining soil fertility and soil health. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 5(2): 338-344. Odion E.C., Ahmadu I.S., Aminu A.R., Luka G.L., Isah S.A., Arunah U.L. (2015): Determination of Pruduction of Crop Mixtures: the Relevance of the Agronomic Efficiency Method. Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica 48 (3-4): xx-ee Rosset P.M. (1999): The multiple functions and benefits of small farm agriculture in the context of global trade negotiations. Policy brief prepared for FAO/Netherlands Conference on Agriculture and

References Agneessens, L., Viaene, J., VandenNest, T., Vandecasteele, B., De Neve, S. (2015). Effect of ensilaged vegetable crop residue amendments on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Scientia Horticulturae , 192 (31), 311-319. Alluvione, F., Moretti, B., Sacco, D., Grignani, C. (2011). EUE (energy use efficiency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture. Energy , 36 , 4468-4481. Amanullah, Almas, L.K. (2009). Partial factor productivity, agronomic efficiency, and economic analyses of maize in wheat-maize cropping system in Pakistan. Selected Paper

Abstract

The investigations conducted at the Podu-Iloaiei Agricultural Research Station, Iaşi County, Romania, have studied the influence of different mineral fertilizers rates on wheat and maize yield and soil agrochemical characteristics. In bean-wheatmaize- sunflower-wheat crop rotation, the mean yield increases, obtained for each kg of a.i. of applied fertilizer, were comprised between 8.3 and 10.1 kg in wheat (N120P80- N160P80) and between 10.8 and 11.0 kg in maize (N150P80-N200P100). Generally, nitrogen use efficiency is low and, to achieve maximum yields, need for high doses of nitrogen which can increase the risk of environmental pollution. The N agronomic efficiencies and physiological efficiencies in wheat and maize declined with the increase of nitrogen rate. Wheat placed in rotation for five years, after sunflower at recommended dose (N160P80), physiological efficiency of nitrogen utilization was 43.4 kg grain per kilogram of nitrogen exported from soil, from fertilizer applied. Mean annual amounts of nutrients exported from soil by wheat in dry (14 yr.) and favourable (11 yr.) years in five year crop rotation have varied according to rates, between 34.5 and 100.7 kg at nitrogen and between 6.5 and 18.4 kg at phosphorus. The long-term use of bean - wheat - maize - sunflower - wheat rotation determined the diminution by 43.4% (2,772 t/ha) in the mean annual losses of eroded soil and by 38.5% (5.61 kg/ha) in nitrogen leakages by erosion, compared with maize continuous cropping.

): Uptake and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in winter barley and winter wheat. European Journal of Agronomy, 9, 11–20. doi: 10.1016/S1161-0301(98)00019-7. Ducsay L, Ložek O (2004): Effect of topdressing with nitrogen on the yield and quality of winter wheat grain. Plant, Soil and Environment, 50, 309–314. Flaete NES, Hollung K, Ruud L, Sogn T, Faergestad EM, Skarpeid HJ, Magnus EM, Uhlen AK (2005): Combined nitrogen and sulphur fertilisation and its effect on wheat quality and protein composition measured by SE-FPLC and proteomics. Journal of Cereal Science, 41, 357

irrigation Schemes in Amhara region, north western Ethiopia. Intl.Res.J.Agric.Sci.Soil Sci., 4(5): 95-100. Bavec, M., Jakop, D., Mlakar, S.G. & Bavec, F. (2011). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yields and nitrogen agronomic efficiency of onion. Proceedings, 47 th Croatian and 7 th International Symposium on Agriculture, Opatija, Croatia (368-372). Bettoni, M.M., Mógor, Á.F., Kogerastki, J.F. & Pauletti, V. (2016). Onion ( Allium cepa, L.) seedling growth using humic substances. IDESIA (Chile), 34(2):57-62. CIMMYT (1988) . From agronomic data to farmer

calculated as the product of straw N concentration and straw DM yield. Efficiency ratios of fertiliser N use for treatments receiving fertiliser N were calculated according to Lada et al . (2005) . Recovery efficiency of N (RE N ) = (U F - U 0 ) / F N Agronomic efficiency of N (AE N ) = (Y F - Y 0 ) / F N Physiological efficiency of N (PE N ) = (Y F - Y 0 ) / (U F - U 0 ) Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) = Y/U where U F and U 0 are total N accumulation (kg N/ha) and Y F and Y 0 are the grain yield (kg DM/ha) in the fertilised and unfertilised treatments

two bioenergy plantations in response to nitrogen fertilization: A comparison of Miscanthus and Salix. Environmental Pollution 237: 205–217. Huygens D., Saveyn H.G.M., 2018. Agronomic efficiency of selected phosphorus fertilisers derived from secondary raw materials for European agriculture. A meta-analysis. Agronomy For Sustainable Development 38(5): 52. Jones J.B., Case V.W., 1990. Soil testing and plant analysis. 3 rd ed. Soil Science Society of America SSSA, Chapter 15. Joniec J., 2018. Enzymatic activity as an indicator of regeneration processes in degraded

relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environ. Exp. Bot., 47: 39-50 Delogu G., Cattivelli L., Pecchioni N., Defalcis D., Maggiore T., Stanca A.M., 1998 - Uptake and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in winter barley and winter wheat. Eur. J. Agron., 9: 11-20. Duncan B.D., 1955 - Multiple range and multiple F. Test. Biometrics, 11: 1-42. Ekmekçi B.A., Karaman M., 2012 - Exogenous ascorbic acid increases resistance to salt of Silybum marianum (L.). African J. Biotech. 11(42): 9932-9940. El-Hosary A.A., Hammam G.Y., ELMorsi A., Hassan E.A., EL-Awadi M