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, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8334, Oakland. 11. Go, F. M., Govers, R. (2000), “Integrated quality management for tourist destinations: a European perspective on achieving competitiveness”, Tourism Management, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 79-88. 12. Hall, D. (2004), “Rural tourism development in southeastern Europe: transition and the search for sustainability”, International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 119-203. 13. Iakovidou, O. (1997), “Agro-tourism in Greece: the case of women agro-tourism co

REFERENCES 1. Abdullah, S. (2012). Rekayasa sistem pengembangan agrowisata berbasis masyarakat . (System engineering of agro-tourism based on community development) . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia (in Indonesian). 2. Asheri, V. & Rifin, A. (2015). Analisis nilai tambah cokelat batangan (chocolate bar) di Pipiltin Cocoa, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta Selatan. (Chocolate bar added value analysis in Pipiltin Cocoa, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta Selatan). Jurnal Forum Agribisnis , 5(01), 105-119 (in Indonesian). 3. Aziz, M


The research question is the relationship between the local community and globalization tendencies and transformation or maintenance of local traditions. The research area is a specific locality of a Czech village in Romanian Banat. The local community has evolved in a relative isolation. Agriculture was the most important activity despite the fact that a mining factory was opened there. Agriculture was and in many features still is traditional, self-supplying, and hard-work. The life-style has always been environmentally friendly as it has been without modern technologies. Nevertheless, modernization exploded dramatically in these villages after 1989, when the communist policies collapsed along with Romania's isolation. People from the Czech Republic have rediscovered Romanian Banat and a rather busy (agro) tourism has developed there. The Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs supports development projects for making living conditions in the village better. Simultaneously, strong migration from Banat to the Czech Republic has started. People find living conditions in the Czech Republic easier and leave hard work, poverty and unemployment. It brings huge land cover changes because people who remain cannot use all arable land, which is thus abandoned and left for the natural process. One of the distinct manifestations of globalization tendencies is the build-up of wind power plants.


This paper contributes to the research on entrepreneurship in rural areas by focusing on the absorption and investment plans developed with European Funds and implemented in Romania in 2007-2013 for rural development. Entrepreneurship in the European Union is seen as the solution for creating and increasing jobs number, developing new business models, and is related very often with creativity and innovation. Moreover, entrepreneurship is directly linked to the economic performance of regions (), poverty reduction and contributes to the economic advancement of rural communities. The focus on rural areas is given by the fact that almost half of the Romanian population lives in villages or communes (around 45%), and the main income source comes from agriculture. In the same time, there is an important potential for entrepreneurial projects because rural areas are high underdeveloped, there is a lack of services in major fields as education, social services, entertainment etc. Also, we find a high potential in tourism, especially in ecological, adventure or agro-tourism. We develop a theoretical framework to discuss the potential impact of EU Funds on rural development, the access to public funds for rural population, their readiness for business ownership, the most accessible fields for starting a business and regional variables. Our study is based on public data and official reports on the European Funds received by Romania in the budgetary period of 2007-2013 and other market data that round the entrepreneurship frame in rural areas. We analyze the number of start-ups financed by European funds, type and size of enterprises, number of jobs and reasons for contract cancellation. We find that regions with a reach cultural heritage and closer to the Western border have registered more applications and are more interested in self-employment, but also that given the administrative barriers many entrepreneurs decided to cancel the contracts.


Tourism is an industry with a strong long-term potential of becoming one of the key industries in securing the country’s economic growth. Tourists are nowadays interested in not only getting to know the cultural-historical peculiarities, but also the way of life and cultural traditions of the inhabitants of the individual regions. Kysuce region is characterised by scattered settlement, which used to be a significant type of settlement in remote and inaccessible parts of the area in the past. Nowadays, however, the majority of the objects of the scattered settlement either serve as holiday chalets or are uninhabited.The aim of this paper is to evaluate the recreational potential of tourism in Kysuce region. Based on the established methodology, the individual villages were divided into five categories: areas with less suitable potential of tourism development (PTD), areas with suitable PTD, areas with quality PTD, areas with PTD of high quality and areas with the most significant PTD. These categories have been established based on the point evaluation of the potential of input indicators – natural potential, cultural-historical potential, recreational infrastructure and environmental infrastructure. The most significant PTD in the monitored area is the village of Oščadnica (279 points), and the villages of Horný Vadičov (231 points), Raková (224 points) and Nová Bystrica (219.5 points) were evaluated as the areas with PTD of high quality. Agro-tourism in this region is, however, the least developed, despite the location of the region being very favourable for such an activity. Its development could lower unemployment and offer a source of income of the inhabitants, or reduce movement of the inhabitants into other regions of Slovakia. Subsequently, the character of the landscape with all its key functions for sustaining the quality of the environment could be preserved.

European Countryside - Editorial

EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE is defined as an international on-line scientific journal in the branch of rural development. It publishes first of all theoretical and methodological articles, dealing with multi-functional development of countryside, articles related to regional aspects of rural development and with problems of individual branches connected with the countryside. EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE is a journal supporting European processes of integration, collaboration of experts from European countries and the idea of Europe of Regions. EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE deals with problems of European countryside - although general and/or theoretical problems of rural research from other continents are welcome. Widening of the European Community and common agricultural policy put a joint future ahead of the rural development in whole Europe. Our journal welcomes articles from different disciplines dealing with the countryside having in mine conceptions of sustainability and locality: ecology of rural landscape, rural sociology, demographic development of rural regions, human resources, gender, multifunctional development of countryside, role of agriculture and other branches, rural and agro-tourism, geography of rural micro-regions, problems of rural borderland, rural settlement, small towns as rural centres, rural planning and architecture and other aspects of rural development. The publishing in EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE is open for all experts from universities, scientific institutions and other workplaces of investigation. The authors will pay symbolic amount for the publication of their papers. We go out from the presupposition that a majority of results arise within different grants projects where publication costs are an integral part of the budget. Other expenses connected with publishing of EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE are covered by the MUAF Faculty of Agronomy. On the other side, the papers published in EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE will be free accessible to all potential readers through the net. By such a way we hope in better quotation of individual papers and increasing value of the papers and their authors. Additionally, professional way of publishing helps to complete this aim.

Zbornik Medunarodni Simpozij Agronoma, Opatija, Hrvatska, 16–20 Veljače 2009. Cichowska, J., & Klimek, A. (2011). The Role of Agrotourism in the Development and Conversion. Infrastruktura i Ekologia Terenów Wiejskich , 11, 97–107. Çıkın, A., Çeken, H., & Uçar, M. (2009). The Effect of Tourism on Theagricultural Sector, Agro-Tourism and Economic Results. J. Agric. Econ ., 15(1), 1–8. Ciolac, R., Adamov, T., Lancu, T., Popescu, G., Lile, R., Rujescu, C., & Marin, D. (2019). Agrotourism-A Sustainable Development Factor for Improving the ‘Health’ of Rural Settlements

States. In: Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Vol. 33 (2), pp. 254-269. Catalino, A.H. and Lizardo, M., 2004: Agriculture, Environmental Services and Agro-Tourism in the Dominican Republic. In: E-Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Vol. 1 (1), pp. 87-116. Choo, H., 2012: Agritourism: Development and Research. In: Journal of Tourism Research & Hospitality, Vol. 1 (2). Colton, J. and Bissiz, G., 2005: Developing Agritourism in Nova Scotia: Issues and Challenges. In: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Vol. 27 (1), pp. 91-112. Das, B. and

MISCELLANEA GEOGRAPHICA W A R S Z A W A 1 9 9 6 V o l . 7 Andrzej Kowalczyk SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN RURAL AREAS IN POLAND The development of agro-tourism can be viewed as one of the pos- sibilities of combining the idea of sustainable development with tourist needs of industrial and post-industrial societies. An important aspect here is the mobilizing influence of tourism on agriculture and vice versa, as well as its effect on local and regional economy. In 1989 Poland entered a period of social, political

, Warszawa. 4. Habán M., Macák M., Otepka, P. (2012), Rural tourism and agro-tourism in Slovakia. Roczniki Naukowe Ekonomii Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Obszarów Wiejskich, nr 99 (3), s. 38-39. 5. IGiPZ-PAN (2012), Turystyka wiejska, w tym agroturystyka, jako element zrównoważonego i wielofunkcyjnego rozwoju obszarów wiejskich. Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania im. Stanisława Leszczyckiego PAN, Warszawa. 6. Jankowski J. (2011), Identyfikacja elementów wpływających na efektywność witryn internetowych. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego. Ekonomiczne