Silvia Falasca, Sandra Pitta-Alvarez and Ana Ulberich
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 FAO. Agro-Ecological Zoning Guidelines. FAO Soils Bulletin 76. Rome: Food and
Ashaolu, E. D., & Iroye, K. A. (2018). Rainfall and potential evapotranspiration patterns and their effects on climatic water balance in the Western Lithoral Hydrological Zone of Nigeria. Ruhuna Journal of Science , Vol. 9, Issue 2 , 92-116, available at: http://doi.org/10.4038/rjs.v9i2.45 .
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Bandyopadhyay, A., Bhadra, A., Raghuwanshi, N.S., & Singh, R. (2009). Temporal trends in estimates of
Gintaras Jarasiunas, Irena Kinderiene and Ferdo Bašić
Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre.
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P.O. Ogbaji, J. Li, X. Xue, M.H. Shahrajabian and E.A. Egrinya
A study was conducted to assess the effects of a bio-fertilizer and an inorganic fertilizer on growth, yield of spinach vegetable, on four cultivated soils, representing different agro-ecological zones of Chengdu, Hunan, Xiaotangshan and Shaanxi. Three replicates soil samples mixed with bio-fertilizer 100 g per pot and nutrient solution (MgSO4, Ca(NO)2, KNO3) 633 ml based on container volume. Spinach seeded directly ten per pot, thinned to five watered to plant water requirement until maturity. RCBD of three replication used, data for growth, yield and other agronomic characters and soil physicochemical properties evaluated. Soil results showed substantial differences in physicochemical properties from the four agro-ecological zones (Ferrod Arenosol, Entisol, Aridisol and Vertisol). Plant emergence percent were Xiaotangshan (74.8%), Chengdu (74.5%), Hunan (72.4%) and Shaanxi (70.7%), plant height at six week, Xiaotangshan (17.8 cm), Hunan (17.1 cm), Shaanxi (16.8 cm) and Chengdu (16.1 cm) the least, number of leaves at six weeks were Xiaotangshan (21), Hunan (19) and (16) Shaanxi, leaf area Hunan (89.5 cm2), Shaanxi (83.7 cm2), Chengdu (79.4 cm2) and Xiaotangshan (78.1 cm2), dry biomass of 4.88, 4.35, 3.83 and 3.03 g obtained for Hunan, Chengdu, Shaanxi and Xiaotangshan, respectively. Percentage plant emergence based on soil layers were 0-25 cm (75.8%), 25-50 cm (75.3%), 50-75 cm (71.6%) and 75-100 cm (69.6%), respectively; highest plant emergence percentage were obtained from top soil layer of Hunan, treated with biofertilizer. Substantial differences were observed for plant height, biomass and other agronomic characters in all the soils. The results show that Hunan soil is the most suitable for cultivation of spinach under biofertilizer treatment, compared to other types. The study underpins the importance soil types and fertilizer evaluation for a sustainable vegetable production in China.
Lúcia Sinka, Mária Takács-Hájos, Krisztina Czellér, Géza Tuba and József Zsembeli
There are extended agricultural areas in the world that can be utilized only with irrigation for crop production. Improper irrigation may induce unfavourable processes in the soil (e.g. secondary salinization). To investigate this problem existing in Hungary as well, 12 simple drainage lysimeters – which are useful equipment for the investigation of the water and salt balance of the soil – were used in an irrigation experiment in the Research Institute of Karcag. The basic goal was to investigate the possibility of the production of a salt-sensitive crop (green bean) in areas with unfavourable agro-ecological conditions. 6 lysimeters were irrigated with deionized water, while the other 6 with saline water of 1,600 mg/l salt content. We also used a soil conditioner (Neosol) during the experiment. Analysing the effect of the irrigation quality on the plant height of green beans, it can be established that the plants irrigated with deionized water were averagely 5.3 cm taller than the plants irrigated with saline water. Similar tendencies were characteristic of the average biomass (deionized: 93.5, saline: 62.5 g), the average root mass (deionized: 9.5 g, saline: 8.2 g), the number of pods (deionized: 17.1, saline: 11.9), and the pod yield (deionized: 137.9 g, saline: 85.9 g) values. However, all these values can be improved by soil conditioning combined with the optimization of irrigation.
Loosing agricultural heritage in rural landscape - a case study in Koppány Valley Area, Hungary
The research is focusing on the Big Koppány stream (Hungary), which is designated by local communities as an experimental area for agro-ecological development. This poverty stricken, underdeveloped area is showing symptoms of continuous ecological deterioration (typical in many areas of Hungary and Europe). We introduce the partly surviving agri-cultural heritage of the area. We also introduce Vox Valley Development Association who is decided to demonstrate the possible actions which help the formation of a sustainable agro-ecological system. This paper concentrates on proposals which will help the evolution of such a system.
Hadiza Kudu Muhammad, Daniel Ojochenemi Apeh, Hadiza Lami Muhammad, Yemisi Bose Olorunmowaju, Ebere Ifeji and Hussaini Anthony Makun
15. Okoye ZS , (1993). Fusarium mycotoxins nivalenol and 4-acetyl-nivalenol (fusarenon-X) in mouldy maize harvested from farms in Jos district, Nigeria. Food Additives and Contaminants 10: 375–379.
16. Hell K, Udoh J, Setamou M, Cardwell, KF, Visconti A (1996). Fungal Infection and Mycotoxins in Maize in the Different Agro-ecological Zones of Benin and Nigeria. Food and Chemical Toxicology 4: 11-16.
17. Udoh JM, Cardwell KF, Ikotun T , (2000). Storage structures and aflatoxin content of maize in five agroecological zones of Nigeria
Good knowledge of genetic merits governing the inheritance of economic traits is of paramount importance to plant breeders for crop improvement. Objectives of the study were to investigate the genetic nature of ear traits in sweet corn (Zea mays convar. saccharata var. rugosa) based on the general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) analysis, and to determine the breeding potential of eight promising inbred lines for the development of new hybrid cultivars well suited for organic production. Thirty-six genotypes (hybrid families) derived from a half diallel cross design were grown under organic crop management at three agro-ecological zones of the tropics. Although the genotypes varied significantly for all the observed ear traits, some of them showed clear inconsistencies in performing husked ear size (length, diameter, and weight), kernel row number, and kernel number per row across environments. The combining ability analysis showed that additive gene action was more preponderance than non-additive gene actions in governing the inheritance of the studied ear traits. The inbred lines: Caps 5, Caps 17A, Caps 17B, and Caps 22 showed their potential as good partners for the improvement of ear performances as to the development of superior sweet corn cultivars for organic production.
Contamination of Wheat Grains with Species of Genera Fusarium in Different Localities of Slovakia in 2006-2008
The frequency and relative density of occurrence of Fusarium spp. was evaluated on 112 wheat grain samples from different agro-ecological localities in Slovakia. The samples were collected in 2006, 2007 and 2008 from the same farmers and from the same localities every year immediately after harvest. In 2006, contamination was 95.2%, in 2007 it was 64.3%, and 71.4% in 2008. The highest average frequency of occurrence was found in Fusarium graminearum in 2006 - 65%. The prevalence of Fusarium poae was ascertained in 2007 and 2008. The highest frequency of Fusarium spp. occurrence was revealed in locality Turčiansky Ďur in 2008 - 53.9%. The highest identified amount of Fusarium species (12) was from the area of Turčiansky Ďur in 2007. Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, Fusarium poae and Fusarium oxysporum were the most frequent in 2006, while Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichioides, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium semitectum dominated in 2007. Fusarium poae dominated in 2008, then followed Fusarium sporotrichioides, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium avenaceum. Other identified species, such as Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium tricinctum and Microdochium nivale, were in population structure in a relatively low density. Grains contaminated with Fusarium spp. are unsuitable for both human and animal consumption because of the adverse health effects of fusariotoxins.
Milka Brdar-Jokanović, Branka Ljevnaić-Mašić, Dejana Džigurski, Anamarija Koren, Larisa Merkulov-Popadić, Ljiljana Nikolić and Dušan Adamović
The aim of this study was to examine weed flora occurring in an organic common mallow (Malva sylvestris L.), a newly established crop at the experimental field Bački Petrovac, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, during the growing season of 2014. The weed flora consisted of six species, with even a half being invasive for Vojvodina region (Sorghum halepense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium). The observed low floristic diversity may be related to unbalanced ecological conditions in a newly established crop, invasive species, comparatively low fertilization, allelopathic relations, and possibly robust habitus of the main crop. However, although the flora was low in diversity, both narrow and broadleaf species were represented, with the average infestation as high as 16 individuals per m2. In addition, since the recorded weeds flower from Mart to November, until the development of more efficient methods that are in compliance with the principles of organic agriculture, mechanical weeding should be performed at least three times during the growing season. To our knowledge, this is the first such report on organic common mallow in agro ecological conditions of Serbian province Vojvodina and represents the first step in establishing the adequate weed control measures.