The present paper discusses studies related to the preparation of a hydrogeological model of groundwater flow and nitrate transport in an area where a precision farming system is applied. Components of water balance were determined using the UnSat Suite Plus software (HELP model), while the average infiltration rate calculated for the study area equalled 20 per cent. The Visual MODFLOW software was used for the purpose of modelling in the saturated zone. Hydrogeological parameters of the model layers, inclusive of hydraulic conductivity, were defined on the basis of results of column tests that were carried out under laboratory conditions (column experiment). Related to the dose of mineral nitrogen used in precision fertilisation (80 kg N/ha), scenarios of the spread of nitrates in the soil-water environment were worked out. The absolute residual mean error calculated for nitrate concentrations obtained from laboratory and modelling studies equalled 0.188 mg/L, the standard error of the estimate equalling 0.116 mg/L. Results obtained were shown graphically in the form of hydroisohypse maps and nitrate isolines. Conclusions were drawn regarding the possibility of using numerical modelling techniques in predicting transport and fate of nitrates from fertilisers applied in precision agriculture systems.
Reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus inputs into surface waters from nonpoint agricultural sources requires targeted application of differentiated measures. In the study focused on soil and water conservation in the Jihlava river basin upstream of the Dalešice reservoir, we identified areas at potential risk of soil erosion, elevated infiltration and nutrient leaching, tile-drained areas and vulnerable riparian zones of water bodies. We then designed a system of complex protective measures for this river basin in more variants, and their effectiveness was estimated using simple empirical model calculations and research findings. Application of the measures defined by optimal variant 3 in the studied watershed could lead to reduction of the soil erosion effects on the surface water quality by 26.5 %, with simultaneous reduction of the amount of washed out total nitrogen by 22.8 %. The results of our study constitute a partial component of the Qualitative Model of the Jihlava River Basin and they were provided for use to the Vysočina Region authorities and the State Land Office.
The action framework at the European Union level for the protection of biodiversity was established based on the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the Birds Directive (79/409/EEC). One main element of the future implementation of these Directives in Croatia is the establishment of a Natura 2000 network of special protection sites, a network which should rely on a specific monitoring plan at national level for each species of community interest. In this context, the present study proposes a set of monitoring elements for Barbus meridionalis for the Croatian Continental Biogeographical Region. The proposal is based on seven main criteria: proximity of national border, high quality populations, habitats which should be ecologically reconstructed, key habitats/sectors with high importance for connectivity, point sources of industrial pollution, areas/sectors influenced by diffuse sources of agricultural pollution, and areas/sectors influenced by habitat modifications.
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