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Carabid communities (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in differently managed forage legume stands in the Podpoľanie region (Central Slovakia)

−88. C ole , L.J., M c C racken , D.I., D ennis , P., D ownie , I.S., G riffin , A.L., F oster , G.N., M urphy , K.J., W aterhouse , T., 2002. Relationship between agricultural management and ecological groups of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) on Scottish farmland. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment , 93 (1−3): 323−336. D emo , M., B ielek , P., D žatko , M., L acko -B artošová , M., J uráni , B., V ilčík , J., G aisbacher , J., 1998. Usporiadanie a využívanie pôdy v poľnohospodárskej krajine [Classification and use of soils in agricultural land

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Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches of Delineation in Detailed Mapping of Vineyard Landscape. Case Study: Vicinity of Pezinok (Slovakia)

Abstract

The main goal of this paper is the application of qualitative and quantitative free available data for geographical delineation based on reconnaissance research in vineyard landscape. The results of delineation are useful in agricultural management or environmental planning. Our delineation may serve as the basic information on site conditions of vineyards near Pezinok (Slovakia), with historical use from the beginning of 13th century. We have studied the actual land cover and classified physiotopes of the study area into a set of relatively homogenous and coherent landscape units. The landscape units defined in this work consist of homogenous physiotopes in terms of their structural and functional characteristics, which have been shaped by natural factors (land-forms, soil type and subtype, geological base, elevation, slope, aspect, solar radiation and normal different vegetation index (NDVI)). The characteristics were used to define 23 landscape units in qualitative delineation (based on both qualitative and quantitative data). Only quantitative characteristics – elevation, aspect, slope, solar radiation and NDVI, were used in a K-means cluster analysis to define the 17 landscape units. The number of landscape units was computed by WB-index, and standardisation of data was computed by factor analysis. The whole classification process was statistically significant. The strength of the grouping procedure was tested by using Discriminant Analysis, which found that 92.70% of objects in qualitative and 98.50% of objects in quantitative delineation were correctly classified.

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Socio-spatial conflicts caused by an unfavourable rural structure and out-of-date Land and Property Register

Abstract

This article addresses the issue of conflict situations caused by an out-of-date Land and Property Register (LPR) and the disadvantageous structure of rural areas in southern Poland. In this part of the country, holdings are very fragmented and scattered, made up of a large number of small surface area plots located far from the headquarters of the holding. The aim of the article is to present actions that can help improve rural spatial structure and validity of the land register. The authors have, therefore, analysed the problems that may result in both spatial and social conflicts. The following were analysed in particular: discrepancies between data in the LPR and the existing factual state, plots without access to public roads, property ownership structure, the necessity to regulate property boundaries, and problems with the procedure for taking land out of agricultural production. The article presents both positive and negative effects of the land consolidation and exchange process, modernisation of the Land and Property Register, and their impact on socio-spatial conflicts. Its results indicated that the land consolidation procedure and LPR modernisation have a significant impact on socio-spatial relations in rural areas. It has been found that despite the fact that both these activities may give rise to new disputes in addition to resolving conflicts, the overall balance is positive. It is because more positive aspects of these actions were found than negative consequences.

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How the Management May Affect Dispersal of Slender Speedwell (Veronica filiformis Smith) in Meadows and Pastures

Abstract

Slender speedwell (Veronica filiformis Smith, family Plantaginaceae) is a non-native and invasive species of grassland in the Europe. The aim of the study was to test the ability of the growth and spreading in nine differently managed grasslands (mowing, mulching, grazing). The best survival was found in two-years mowed lots with fertilisation and in all lots with not permanent cattle pasture crops. There were found the highest number of survived plants and plants with big “rosette“ diameters. Number of survived plant for two seasons was 18 and total number of vegetative peaks per plant was 688. The potential for the spreading of such plant population is great. On the other hand, plants did not survived in lots with mulch treatment and in fenced lots with permanent cattle grazing.

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Importance of Sugar Beet in the Frame of Carbon Quantification in the Czech Republic

-80-200-1876-2. Pechanec, V. et al. (2015). Decision support tool for the evaluation of landscapes. Ecological Informatics , 30, 2015, s. 305-308. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoinf.2015.06.006. Pechanec, V. et al. (2017). Prediction of Climate Change Impacts on Sustainbale Agricultural Management in the Czech Republic. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 26, 2017 (12), s. 7580-7586. Penman, J. et al. (2003). Good Practice Guidance for Land Use Change . Hayama (Japan): IPPC/OECD/IEA/IGES, 2003, 121 s. Schwartz, D.; Namri, M. (2002). Mapping the total organic carbon in the soils

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A note on the Hybrid Soil Moisture Deficit Model v2.0

Abstract

The Hybrid Soil Moisture Deficit (HSMD) model has been used for a wide range of applications, including modelling of grassland productivity and utilisation, assessment of agricultural management opportunities such as slurry spreading, predicting nutrient emissions to the environment and risks of pathogen transfer to water. In the decade since its publication, various ad hoc modifications have been developed and the recent publication of the Irish Soil Information System has facilitated improved assessment of the spatial soil moisture dynamics. In this short note, we formally present a new version of the model (HSMD2.0), which includes two new soil drainage classes, as well as an optional module to account for the topographic wetness index at any location. In addition, we present a new Indicative Soil Drainage Map for Ireland, based on the Irish Soil Classification system, developed as part of the Irish Soil Information System.

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Impact of soil compaction on water content in sandy loam soil under sunflower

Abstract

Soil compaction causes important physical modifications at the subsurface soil, especially from 10 to 30 cm depths. Compaction leads to a decrease in infiltration rates, in saturated hydraulic conductivity, and in porosity, as well as causes an increase in soil bulk density. However, compaction is considered to be a frequent negative consequence of applied agricultural management practices in Slovakia.

Detailed determination of soil compaction and the investigation of a compaction impact on water content, water penetration depth and potential change in water storage in sandy loam soil under sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was carried out at 3 plots (K1, K2 and K3) within an experimental site (field) K near Kalinkovo village (southwest Slovakia). Plot K1 was situated on the edge of the field, where heavy agricultural equipment was turning. Plot K2 represented the ridge (the crop row), and plot K3 the furrow (the inter–row area of the field). Soil penetration resistance and bulk density of undisturbed soil samples was determined together with the infiltration experiments taken at all defined plots.

The vertical bulk density distribution was similar to the vertical soil penetration resistance distribution, i.e., the highest values of bulk density and soil penetration resistance were estimated at the plot K1 in 15–20 cm depths, and the lowest values at the plot K2. Application of 50 mm of water resulted in the penetration depth of 30 cm only at all 3 plots. Soil water storage measured at the plot K2 (in the ridge) was higher than the soil water storage measured at the plot K3 (in the furrow), and 4.2 times higher than the soil water storage measured at the most compacted plot K1 on the edge of the field. Results of the experiments indicate the sequence in the thickness of compacted soil layers at studied plots in order (from the least to highest compacted ones): K2–K3–K1.

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Land use changes in the last half century and their impact on water retention in the Šumava mountains and foothills (Czech Republic)

Abstract

Changes in land use and runoff characteristics in Otava river basin and its two subcatchment (Volšovka and Vydra) were examined. The goal was to find out how water retention have responded to changes in landscape management in Šumava mountains and foothills since the year 1970. There were two basic levels of changing land use - (a) conversion of arable land with varying intensity at different management of intensive and extensive grassland, (b) deforestation of large areas of indigenous mostly spruce monocultures and their transfer to the shrub and herbaceous vegetation covering the surface with a discontinuous vegetation. Water retention in Šumava mountains is locally reduced due to vulnerability of monoculture spruce forests by natural disasters (windstorms), diseases and pests. A positive effect of current agricultural management in the Šumava foothills on the reduction of direct runoff during intense rainfall was confirmed.

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Extreme Dry Years in the 21st Century at the Level of the Agricultural Areas of Muntenia, Romania

Abstract

The global climatic changes consisting of the increased in the average air temperature and changes in the rainfall regime have led in the last decades to the extension of the agricultural areas affected by the drought phenomenon, both worldwide and in Romania. During the last half century, the drought and the phenomena associated with it, namely aridization and desertification, are a major problem for mankind. The limiting factor affecting field crops on the largest surface is the drought, the extent and intensity of this type of risk causing annual reduction of agricultural production by at least 30-50%. Drought represents the natural phenomenon determined by the amounts of precipitations below the normal values. The absence of rainfall is due to the predominance of the anti-cyclonic type. The most frequent phenomena occur in the extra-Carpathian agricultural regions of southern and south-eastern Romania Muntenia is located in the drought-sensitive area, where the influx of continental anti-cyclones is higher. Although this phenomena is possible in all seasons and in all agricultural areas, it doesn’t occur simultaneously and doesn’t have the same intensity. In the 21st century, the agricultural years 2001-2002, 2002-2003, 2006-2007, 2011-2012 and 2014-2015 are included in the list of the most recent years in terms of rainfall quantities, the heat units recorded in the warm season, as well as the soil moisture reserve available to winter wheat and maize plants during maximum water consumption. The objective of this paper is to highlight the correlation between the pluviometric regime analyzed during periods of maximum consumption of water from winter wheat and maize crops, the phenomenon of "heat" and the soil moisture reserve. The analysis of these specific indices helped us characterize the mentioned agricultural years, in the context of analysing the phenomenon of pedological drought with an impact in agriculture in Muntenia Region. An important element in the development of agricultural management strategies is to improve scientific knowledge and capacities to better manage climate variability by examining climate data and risks and opportunities analysis. The decrease in production of winter wheat and maize wheat crops occurs in extreme dry agricultural years due to the shortening of the vegetation season as a result of the increase in air temperature and water stress during the period of accumulation of the dry matter in the grain (the filling phase grain) caused by the reduction of precipitation amounts. Drought periods are increasingly common in Romania and are a major problem for agriculture with high impact on the agricultural production.

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The Constructive and Functional Geometry of the Cutter Head of Cylindrical Gears with Curved Toothline

] Máté, M., Hollanda, D., Tolvaly-Rosca, F., Popa-Müller, I.”The localization of the contact patch by cylindrical gear having an Archimedean toothline using the method of setting the tangential displacement”, in XXI-th International Conference of Mechanical Engineers, Arad, 25-28 apr. 2013, Conference Proceedings, ISSN 2068-1267, pp.265-268. [6] Máté, M.The micro-geometric Model of the Toothflanks of a cylindrical Gear With Archimedean Spiral Shaped Toothline. 6th International Scientific and Expert Conference TEAM 2014-Technique, Education, Agriculture

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