The risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen substances from agricultural land is perceived as a result of the interaction of groundwater vulnerability (determined by the characteristics of the environment overlying groundwater in relation to water transport or soil solution) and loading of overlying environment by nitrogen. Index of groundwater vulnerability was assessed on the basis of four parameters, namely, the amount of effective rainfall in the period from October to March, the capacity of soil to accumulate water, the average depth of the groundwater table and the permeability of the rock environment. Assessment of the index of loading of overlying environment by nitrogen was based on two parameters, namely, nitrogen balance and crop cover on agricultural land in the winter half on districts level in 2012, which corresponds with current state of the load. The resulting risk of groundwater pollution by nitrogen was expressed by the formula counting with the transformed values of groundwater vulnerability index and the index of loading of overlying environment by nitrogen. From practical point of view, the above mentioned indexes, as well as the subsequent risk of diffuse groundwater pollution, were spatially expressed via three associated categories. Based on the evaluation of relevant parameters, 5.18% of agricultural land falls into the category of very high and high risk, 42.20% in the medium risk category and 52.62% in the category of low and very low risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen from agricultural land.
The article presents the results of research, conducted in central Poland, where agriculture is the dominant type of land use. This activity is considered as a common potential hazard to groundwater quality because of the use of nitrate fertilizers, especially for small groundwater intakes used for the purpose of rural water supply. For this kind of intake seven scenarios of groundwater quality hazard were elaborated based on the results of the hydrodynamic modelling research in this area including the following: calculation of volume and time of leakage through the aquitard formations to the main useful aquifer, verification of the indirect protection zone and definition of the size of the well capture zone. The scenarios considered the current groundwater quality hazard as well as changes in agricultural land use or changes in fertilizer doses needed to decrease groundwater hazard by nitrates in the intake.
Transformational changes after 1989 were primarily caused by major social changes, including those in the economy and agriculture. Slovakia is also affect by globalization processes. The aim of this article is to characterize the changes in agricultural land use and their spatial distribution in relation to the political transformation of society after 1989, using the Dunajská Streda, Levice, Prievidza and Stará Ľubovňa districts as examples. These districts contain all individual agricultural production types in Slovakia. Changes in agricultural land use were analyzed on the basis of the total areas of land use categories for these districts between 1980 and 2010 and for municipal cadastral areas in selected districts between 2000 and 2010. Two basic indicators of changes in land use were selected for this purpose. The first was the percentage increase or decrease in individual land use categories and the second was the dominant processes in land use based on analysis of the main landscape processes. The cumulative surfaces of selected crops and their products were analyzed using a simple continuous diagram depicting the course of harvesting areas between 1980 and 2010. Crop yields were analyzed by linear regression. The tendency for disappearance of agricultural land use was confirmed in the less agriculturally active areas of Slovakia. This decrease in agricultural land use was at the expense of an increase in urban areas and in the processes of greening, forestation and water body construction.
Impact of coastal inundation on ecology and agricultural land use case study in central Java, Indonesia
Focusing on the regional scale, this study provides information concerning the existing ecological problems associated with coastal inundation in the northern part of coastal area in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The objectives of this paper are to map the coastal inundation, to investigate the impact of coastal inundation on coastal environment and ecology, and to assess the impact of inundation on agricultural land use. An integration of techniques, namely neighborhood analysis, iteration operation, and superimposed analysis method has been applied to generate the digital map and to analyze the impact of inundation. Fieldwork measurement has been done using cross-profiling in order to observe the impact of inundation on the coastal ecosystem. Based on the scenario of 100 cm and 150 cm of inundation, the affected area is about 15 207.6 Ha and 16 687.31 Ha, respectively. Fishpond, dry farming and paddy field are the most affected agricultural areas due to coastal inundation.
In the last decades, the area of agricultural land has been declined permanently in Hungary. Despite the diminishing production area, Hungary is among the leaders in terms of the proportion of agricultural land to the total area in the European Union. There are several reasons of using the arable land. As other economic sectors have gained a greater role in the production of GDP and employment, they have taken a larger area from agriculture. Real estate and infrastructure developments were justified by raising the standard of living of the population. The soil, nature, landscape and water protection aspects were also involved. In Hungary, the arable land is the most important natural resource, so it is very important to protect it. In our study, we examine the changes of arable land and uncultivated area in Hungary based on secondary databases of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office and departments of the Ministry of Agriculture. In the course of the research we focused on regional disparities.
The purpose of this paper was the estimate of the substratum compaction in various soil types and under various conditions of use. The compaction characteristics were performed on the basis of bulk density of soil. It was performed on various types of soil, built of various materials, occurring in the vicinity of Płock. The soils are farming land. The greatest sub-stratum compaction was observed in arable lands, built of light loam, silt and loamy sand. The difference in bulk density between the layer at the depth of 25 – 35 cm and the adjacent horizons reaches 0.3 Mg per cubic metre. In soils used for green crops the substratum layer does not show a large difference between the adjacent layers, but the values of bulk density are equal to about 1.6 – 1.8 Mg per cubic metre already near the surface. Higher values of bulk density at the depth of 25 – 35 cm were observed in 68% of soils under investigation.
Land is an essential resource and plays a vital role in providing food and food security, water, ecosystem services and territorial resilience. However, the past few decades have generated enormous and increasingly unsustainable pressures on land use. The objective of this research is to analyse the main land use changes in Spain between 1987 and 2011 using data provided by the Corine Land Cover (CLC) project. The general trends in land use change at CLC level 1 in this period, and more specifically the changes occurring at CLC level 3 in land destined for agricultural use are analysed. The main reasons that explain these changes, including policy influences, are then identified. The results show that the area occupied by buildings and infrastructure has doubled, agricultural land has decreased and irrigated land has increased; forested areas have also increased, but their ecological quality has been degraded. These trends question the future sustainability of that land use in the analysed period.
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