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Predictors of the Czech learners’ acquisition of selected English phonemes

Abstract

The study investigates predictors of the acquisition of selected English phonemes in a foreign language context. Czech students’ pronunciation was diagnosed by two tests; their ability to produce seven selected phonemes was assessed. Furthermore, data regarding the students’ learning histories was obtained through a questionnaire. Then a multiple regression analysis was conducted in order to identify predictors of the acquisition of the selected phonemes. The analysis uncovered several factors, the most significant being pre - school exposure to English and positive attitudes to English in adolescence, which appeared to influence the subjects’ pronunciation positively. Interestingly, several factors which relate to learning English at school appeared to exert a negative influence on the acquisition of the selected phonemes. Furthermore, besides the importance of long-term exposure to English starting before the age of six, the study also underscored the importance of metacognition in relation to autonomous learning.

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The influence of age factors on the reform of the public service of Ukraine

Abstract

It had been established that the heads of institutions should form teams of workers of different generations with different expectations and methods of work in the context of reforming the public service. The periods of forming generations have been set on the basis of literary sources, such as: Generation X (the period up to 1980); Generation Y (from 1981 to 1996); and Generation Z (after 1997). The most important criteria which form the characteristics of public servants have been singled out, and common and distinctive traits of Generations X, Y, and Z have been systematized. The distribution of the number of public servants in Ukraine has been analyzed by gender, age and the category of position. Based on the use of correlation-regression analysis, the tendency of changes in the share of state servants of Ukraine by age category up to 2020 was investigated. This made it possible to confirm the suggested hypothesis of the dependence of the effective reform of the Ukrainian public service on the effective interaction and cooperation of all generations of public servants. The main requirements for a public institution in which the employees of the new generation will work have been systematized.

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Modern Factors of Health and Their Peculiarities for Teenagers

Abstract

The work aimed at specifying modern features of civilizational factors influence on the health, revealing peculiarities of young age, establishing reflexion of modern factors of health in methodological approaches to health studying. Changes in understanding health are reflected in its studying methodology. The analysis of sociological research data shows, that the social stress became the main reason of medical-demographic situation deterioration in days of reforms. The mechanism of its influence was the loss of effective labor motivation, social envy, and deterioration of spiritual condition of a society. Material well-being decrease was not a determinative factor. The problem of inequalities in health gets the increasing urgency. It is connected with physical and social living environment; availability of qualitative medical aid; specific features of behavior of people. At a medical aid guarantee, and at teenage age, factors of social living environment, which influence behavior in health sphere by means of stigmatization are especially significant.

Open access
Imaging Findings of Bisphosphonates-Associated Osteonecrosis of Jaw: Literature Review and Report of 3 Cases

Abstract

Purpose: The present study aims radiological aspects of the occurrence of osteonecrosis of the jaw age groups both in receiving i.v bisphosphonates tratment Imaging assessment of bisphosphonates therapy-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw it is important to differentiate neoplastic invasion, osteomyelitis, osteoradionecrosis induced by radiation or bone related pathology of general diseases.

Material and method: We conducted a retrospective clinical study including 22 patients (8 men and 14 women) with various stages of osteonecrosis of the jaw.

Results: Radiological examinations using CBCT are required in all therapeutic approach of osteonecrosis of jaw cases providing accurate informations of position, dimension and the link with anatomical structures.Our study showed that the prevalence of osteonecrosis of mandibular growth is higher in women than in men and the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw in appearance is depending on age factor witch occurs more often between age 52-59 and 73-80 years old.

Conclusion: The multitude of complications due to treatment with bisphosphonates bind to an early and specialized therapeutic approach. Radiological examinations is a first choice in the detection and early diagnosis of osteonecrosis of the jaw, patients requiring a permanent supervision by the physician and dentist.

Open access
First and second language acquisition: Towards a reconcillation

Abstract

For the past two decades, research on first language acquisition on the one side, and on second language acquisition and learning on the other have largely developed separately, probably as a reaction to the failure of earlier attempts to use the same methods or simply transfer insights gained in one of the fields to the other. T his article argues that a reconciliation may be fruitful, provided that different aspects which have often got blurred in the discussion are considered separately. These aspects include the assessment of multilingualism and monolingualism, the age factor and the definition of “first” and “second” language, the understanding of linguistic competence and of completeness of acquisition, different forms of acquisition and learning, and uniformity vs. individual differences in the process of language acquisition. By challenging some widely held views on characteristics of first language acquisition and its differences to second language learning, more fine-grained research questions are revealed, some of which have been addressed in recent studies on language acquisition and multilingualism

Open access
Evaluation of hematological and plasma indices in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, with reference to age, sex, and hormonal treatment

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the changes in hematological and plasma indices of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) with regard to age, sex, and hormonal treatment. Sixty specimens of C. idella, comprising fifteen of each age (6, 12, 24, and 36 months) were used to evaluate the age factor. Additionally, 20 fish, both females and males, were designated to determine blood indices with regard to sex and hormonal treatment. The following biochemical indexes were determined in the blood plasma: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and total protein (TP). Glucose and triglyceride levels differed significantly among ages, and significant age-related differences were noted in the values of red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). There were no significant differences in any parameters between males and females. In conclusion, our results showed that the plasma parameter profile could be affected by age (RBC, WBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, glucose, triglycerides) and hormonal treatment (lymphocytes and eosinophils). The blood plasma biochemical and hematological profiles permitted assessing physiological state, which provided useful information for monitoring changes in the health status of the fish.

Open access
Human Lifespan: To Live and Outlive 100 Years?

Ljudski vijek: doživjeti i nadživjeti 100 godina?

Starenje populacije je dominantno demografsko obilježje razvijenih zemalja. Stogodišnjaci su selekcionirana skupina i samo jedna od 7.000 do 10.000 osoba dosegne tu dob. Čimbenici dugovječnosti vjerojatno su brojni i uključuju gensko predodređenje (lokus na 4. kromosomu), zdrav okoliš i zdrave životne navike (prehrana s malo kalorija), redovita tjelesna i psihička aktivnost, kao i dostupnost te učinkovitost zdravstvene zaštite s primjenom geroprofilakse. Stogodišnjaci se adaptiraju na novi život i na gubitak tjelesnih funkcija koji bivaju postupno sve izraženiji kako se dob povisuje. Granice ljudskog života produžuju se - do sada najstarija poznata osoba doživjela je 128 godina. Pojedina zemljopisna područja bilježe izrazito veći broj stogodišnjaka. Navedene su i neke dugovječne osobe s više od 100 godina u svijetu i na području Republike Hrvatske i nekih susjednih zemalja. Iako se uglavnom smatra da se granica trajanja života čovjeka ne može produžiti iznad 120 godina, za sada je ipak teško predvidjeti gdje su njezine granice.

Open access
Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs) in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in all studied leukaemia patients. The median rank obtained by Mann-Whitney U-test revealed insignifi cant differences between the leukaemia patients subgroups and the controls. An exact probability (α < 0.05) associated with the U-test showed signifi cant differences between medians in leukaemia patients and controls groups for Pb (lymphatic/control, acute/control), Cu (lymphatic/control, chronic/control), Ni (lymphatic/control, chronic/control) and Fe (chronic/control). Very strong positive and negative correlations (r > 0.70) in the scalp hair of control group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn, Pb/Fe-Pb, Cu/Ni-Zn/Ni, Cu/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Fe-Zn/Cu, Pb/Ni-Ni and Ni/Fe-Pb/Ni, whereas only very strong positive ratios in the scalp hair of leukaemia patients group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn and Pb/Fe-Pb, all correlations were signifi cant at p < 0.05. Other strong and signifi cant correlations were also observed in scalp hair of both groups. Signifi cant differences between grouping of studied TEs in all classifi ed leukaemia groups and controls were found using principal component analysis (PCA). The results of PCA confi rmed that the type and the growth of leukaemia factors were more important in element loading than the age factor.

Open access
Hydraulic conductivity changes in river valley sediments caused by river bank filtration – an analysis of specific well capacity

Abstract

Parameters from archive data of the Kalisz-Lis waterworks, located in the Prosna River valley south of Kalisz, have been analysed. Well barrier discharges groundwater from Quaternary sediments which is mixed with riverbank filtration water. The analysis focused on specific well capacity, a parameter that represents the technical and natural aspects of well life. To exclude any aging factor, an examination of specific well capacity acquired only in the first pumping tests of a new well was performed. The results show that wells drilled between 1961 and 2004 have similar values of specific well capacity and prove that > 40 years discharge has had little influence on hydrodynamic conditions of the aquifer, i.e., clogging has either not occurred or is of low intensity. This implies that, in the total water balance of the Kalisz- Lis well barrier, riverbank filtration water made little contribution. In comparison, a similar analysis of archive data on the Mosina-Krajkowo wells of two generations of well barriers located in the Warta flood plains was performed; this has revealed a different trend. There was a significant drop in specific well capacity from the first pumping test of substitute wells. Thus, long-term groundwater discharge in the Warta valley has had a great impact on the reduction of the hydraulic conductivity of sediments and has worsened hydrodynamic conditions due to clogging of river bed and aquifer, which implies a large contribution of riverbank filtration water in the total water well balance. For both well fields conclusions were corroborated by mathematical modeling; in Kalisz-Lis 16.2% of water comes from riverbank filtration, whereas the percentage for Mosina-Krajkowo is 78.9%.

Open access
Occupational Stress, Symptoms of Burnout in the Workplace and Work Satisfaction of the Age-diverse Employees

Abstract

Background and Purpose: Age diverse employees are faced with different types of occupational stress and different symptoms of burnout when carrying out their work. Therefore, the role of age in job design and implementation of work should not be ignored. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the age differences of occupational stress and symptoms of burnout of employees and to analyze the impact of occupational stress, symptoms of burnout and age on employees’ work satisfaction.

Methodology: The paper is based on research that includes a survey of employees in two age groups: younger employees under 50 years of age and older employees between 50 to 65 years of age. Factor analysis was used to form the constructs of occupational stress, symptoms of burnout and employees’ work satisfaction. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to test differences in the obtained constructs of occupational stress and symptoms of burnout in the workplace between two independent groups. The multiple regression analysis was used to examine the impact of occupational stress, symptoms of burnout and age on employees’ work satisfaction.

Results: The results show there are statistically significant differences in occupational stress and symptoms of burnout in the workplace between older and younger employees. On average, younger employees perceived higher levels of occupational stress and burnout as compared to the older group. Research results also show that occupational stress, behavioral symptoms and emotional symptoms of burnout, as well as age, have a significant impact on employees’ work satisfaction.

Conclusion: Managing diversity requires a strategic approach to managing people at work. Therefore, this research adds to the body of knowledge by pointing out the relationship between age and occupational stress and burnout symptoms. Because the role of age in job design has largely been ignored, these relationships have not been studied enough.

Open access