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Either effects or aftereffects of visual illusions are well studied at the visual domain while there are few studies of aftereffects at the motor tasks such as grasping or pointing at the illusory. The aftereffects of Müller-Lyer and Ponzo illusions in the sensorimotor domain were studied. We used four illusions: two versions of Müller-Lyer illusions (upper/bottom shafts appear longer) and two versions of Ponzo illusions (classical and inverted, upper/bottom shafts appear longer). They were presented to four experimental groups, each type to one of the groups. A fifth group was shown neutral stimuli (two horizontal lines, one under another). At first, one of the above described stimuli was presented ten times. Then, for testing the aftereffect, the neutral stimuli were presented thirty times. After the disappearance of each stimulus, the participant moved his/her right hand across the touch screen along its upper and lower shafts. The participants of all experimental groups experienced significant illusions, but only the classical Ponzo illusion caused significant long-time assimilative aftereffect. These results reveal the existence of an illusory aftereffect in the sensorimotor domain. Moreover, it depends on the type of visual illusion, thereby supporting the hypothesis of origin of the different visual illusions at different levels of the visual system.

29 Chapter 2 Stability of Hybrid Systems with Aftereffect Introduction In this chapter, the main attention is focused on the stability analysis of a hybrid system under impulse perturbations in terms of the generalized direct Lyapunov method. The impulse system is a classical hybrid system consisting of a continuous and discrete component. The presence of aftereffect in such a system expands the scope of possible applications in the study of real-world phenomena. Section 2.1 considers statement of the problem of motion stability of a hybrid system with

The After-Effect of Conservation Tillage of Onion With Mulch Utilization Made of Spring Rye And Common Vetch On The Yield of Carrot Roots

The after-effect of conservation tillage of onion on carrot yielding was investigated in field experiment. Biomass from intercrops: spring rye (Secale cereale) and common vetch (Vicia sativa) was cultivated for forecrop (onion) and incorporated with the soil with the use of fall and spring disking or direct sowing of onion in mulch. Check was determined as a conventional ploughing without mulching plants. Carrot as a successive crop was cultivated in conventional tillage without differentiation of pre-sowing cultivation. Various methods of conservation tillage with spring rye and common vetch utilization as cover crops for forecrop (onion) were proved positive influence on total and marketable yield of carrots roots in after-effect in the second year after their application. Conservation tillage was exerted advantageous influence on all tested properties of roots yield in after-effect in comparison to conventional cultivation without cover crops.

Strength Evaluation of Filling-In Color Illusion

The strength of chromatic after-effect was studied using the filling-in after-effect image illusion (Van Lier et al.). In our experiments, two stimuli, each consisting of round and sharp-edged overlapping chromatic shapes, were presented to the subjects for 1.2 s on both sides of the fixation point. After that the empty shapes of the stimuli appeared for 0.6 s, and in the next 0.6 s changed the orientation on both sides of the fixation point thus changing the after-effect color from side to side. The subjects made judgments about the strength of the perceived after-effect on a ten-grade scale for different color pairs. The color of one stimulus was kept constant, while the color of the other was changed; as a result of color changes of both stimuli 192 color pairs in total were formed. Some of them were found to arouse a powerful sensation of the after-effect with a color not directly arranged on the opposite axis of chromaticity diagram. Blue and yellow colors were valued as creating the most pronounced after-effect.


The paper discusses the question of media reflexivity and allegorical figuration in Lucian Pintilie’s 1992 film, The Oak. Through a fictional narrative, the film reflects on the communist period from the historical context of the post-1989 transition strongly marked by the after-effects of dictatorship and by political, social and economic instability. By incorporating a diegetic Polaroid camera and a home movie, The Oak displays a reflexive preoccupation with the mediality and the socio-cultural constructedness of the image. The figurative, allegorizing tendency of the film – manifest in the subversive recontextualization of grand narratives, iconographic codes or images of art history – also foregrounds the question of cultural mediation. I argue that by displaying the non-transparency of the cinematic image and the cultural mediatedness of the “real,” the media-reflexive and allegorical-figurative discourse of the film can be regarded as a critical historical response to the social and representational crises linked to the communist era, but at the same time it may be symptomatic of the social, cultural, political anxieties of post-1989 transition.


Innovation is at the core of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs)/construction micro, small, and medium enterprises (CMSMEs) world over. Be that as it may, the overwhelming sorts of innovation among enduring and effective CMSMEs, and the effects of such innovation(s) on the achievement of the CMSMEs is hazy. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the transcendent sorts of innovation among the successful construction micro, small, and medium enterprises. The examination utilized subjective research technique to exploratively decide the sorts of innovations. Recorded interviews comprised the exploration of information from 43 CMSMEs through 14 states out of the 19 states constituting northern Nigeria. While a semi-structured interview with open-ended questions was utilized to gather information through judgmental and snowballing examining procedure at stage 1 and 2 individually. Information was transcribe interpreted, open and axial codes examined and interpreted. The outcome uncover product innovation as the main type of innovation among different types of innovation and generally in charge of the accomplishment of the CMSMEs considered. The investigation improves the collection of learning regarding basic types of innovations within CMSMEs and proposes that effective CMSMEs give more consideration to product innovation to trigger their prosperity and different types of innovation. Moreover, the aftereffect of the examination proposed failing CMSMEs can endure when they focus on product innovation.


Research purpose: Seven of 10 companies that have won the Polish Forbes edition Merge & Acquisition 2018 Ranking are listed on Warsaw Stock Exchange. The aim of the conducted research was to test if the biggest acquisitions have an impact on stocks value and is it possible for typical investor to create extra profit by using knowledge of acquisition based on public information.

Design/Methodology/Approach: Using data from Warsaw Stock Exchange (quotations), typical measures such as rate of return, standard deviation (risk), correlation and transaction volume changes were calculated. Each of the case results obtained for the company was compared with the result for stock market indexes: WIG (Warszawski Indeks Giełdowy – main WSE index), WIG20 (WSE sub-index of the 20 largest companies), mWIG40 (WSE sub-index of 40 medium companies) and sWIG80 (WSE sub-index of 80 small companies). In addition, the outcomes were confronted with public news (from WSE Electronic System for Information Transfer).

Findings: Conducted research has shown that generally successful finalisation of acquisition results in changes of stock prices behaviour. Unfortunately, observed reactions were not the same. Acquisitions induced both increases and decreases in stock prices; there was also no rule in case of risk change. Generally, acquisitions and merges had rather good influence in banking sector (which is still concentrating), but there was no common reaction in other sectors.

Originality/Value/Practical Implications: The results will be useful for investors acting on Warsaw Stock Exchange, especially for individual investor who are not able to carry out detailed analyses. The research provides results including possible pre-effects and after-effects of making big acquisition by a large company. The negative market reactions were also shown.


......................................................................... 20 1.5. Model of a Neural System on a Time Scale .......................................... 22 1.6. Concluding Remarks. ............................................................................. 26 References .................................................................................................... 27 Chapter 2 Stability of Hybrid Systems with Aftereffect…………… 29 Introduction .................................................................................................. 29 2.1. Impulsive Hybrid Aftereffect Systems

REFERENCES [1] BELOZEROV, V. E.—VOLKOV, S. A.: A Geometric Approach to the Stabilization of Control Systems . Ed. of Dnipropetrovsk National University, Dnepropetrovsk, 2006. [2] KHUSAINOV, D. Y.—DZHALLADOVA, I. A.: Evaluation of stability region of differential systems with quadratic right-hand side , Bulletin of Kiev University. Series: Physics and mathematics B.3 (2011), 227–230. (In Russian) [3] KHUSAINOV, D. Y. ET AL.: Linear Dynamical Systems with After-effect . KNU, Kiev, 2015. (In Russian) [4] KHUSAINOV, D. Y.—DAVYDOV, V.: Evaluation of stability