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syntax of adjuncts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Frey, W. (2000). Über die syntaktische Position der Satztopiks im Deutschen. ZAS Papers in Linguistics 20, 137-172. Frey, W. (2003). Syntactic conditions on adjunct classes. In E. Lang, C. Maienborn and C. Fabricius-Hansen (Eds.), Modifying adjuncts (pp. 163-209). Berlin-New York: de Gruyter. Frey, W. (2004). A medial topic position for German. Linguistische Berichte 198, 153-190. Frey, W. and Pittner, K. (1998). Zur Positionierung der Adverbiale im deutschen Mittelfeld. Linguistische Berichte 176, 489

References Arche, M. J. (2012). On the aspectuality of the individual-level/stage-level dichotomy. Borealis, 1, 109-132. Baker, M. C. (2003). Lexical categories: verbs, nouns and adjectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Borgonovo, C. (1994). The parametric syntax of gerunds. (Doctoral dissertation). Brandeis University, Waltham, MA. Borgonovo, C. (1996). Gerunds and perception verbs. Languages et Linguistique, 22, 1-19. Borgonovo, C. and Neeleman, A. (2000). Transparent adjuncts. Canadian Journal of Linguistics, 45, 199-224. Bowers, J. (2000

References 1. Diedrich P. Preprosthetic orthodontics. J Orofac Orthop. 1996;57:102-116. 2. Proffit W. Contemporary Orthodontics, 5th edition, Elsevier, 2013. 3. Melsen B. Adult Orthodontics, Wiley, 2012. 4. Prahl-Andersen B, Prahl C, de Baat C, Creugers NH. Preprosthetic orthodontic treatments. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2014;121:173-177. 5. Cohen BD. The use of orthodontics before fixed prosthodontics in restorative dentistry. Compendium. 1995;16:110-114. 6. Spalding PM, Cohen BD. Orthodontic adjunctive treatment in fixed prosthodontics. Dent Clin North Am. 1992

to become scarce resources for fighting COVID-19, price and availability concerns are inevitable. Thailand is one of the countries that have been affected by the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2) [ 6 , 7 ] but was fortunate enough to procure favipiravir, which is available only in Asia. Given its price and availability, the Thai Food and Drug Administration authorized the use of favipiravir as an adjunctive antiviral therapy to only severe COVID-19 patients under the clinical care system of the Department of Disease

crevicular fluid from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis. J Periodontal, 2008;79:2143-2150. 10. Southerland JH, Taylor GW, Offenbacher S. Diabetes and periodontal infection: Making the connection. Clin Diabetes, 2008;4:171-178. 11. Grossi SG, Skrepcinski FB, DeCaro T, Robertson DC, Ho AW, Dunford RG et al. Treatment of periodontal disease in diabetics reduces glycated hemoglobin. J Periodontol, 1997;68:713-719. 12. Gilowski L, Kondzielnik P, Wiench R, Płocica I, Strojek K, Krzemiński TF. Efficacy of short-term adjunctive subantimicrobial dose

assessment of primary human papillomavirus (HPV), has increased the number of women referred to colposcopy at very low risk of CIN2+. As a result, the poor performance of colposcopy is often a concern to colposcopists when discharging women from clinic after a negative colposcopy. The use of adjuncts in colposcopy, such as ZedScan TM has been shown to increase the detection of CIN2+ [ 4 ]. However, long term outcome data from women who have been discharged to community-based screening is lacking. This current investigation reports the results of a longitudinal service

is no other published study comparing these two analgesics regarding their effect on PCA morphine-provided postoperative analgesia, although there are several studies investigating the postoperative opioid-sparing effect of each drug in different surgical populations. Tramadol has been used as an adjunct to postoperative opioid analgesia following major surgery and was administered at different time points and/or in different doses and regimens. Notably, although tramadol via PCA has been found to effectively control postoperative pain following abdominal surgery


Aim: The present study proposes an assessment of the clinical effects on periodontal level generated by the adjunctive periodontal therapy with sub-antimicrobial doses of doxycycline in patients with chronic periodontitis and osteoporosis.

Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 26 patients with chronic periodontitis and osteoporosis, divided in the study group (classical periodontal debridement and sub-antimicrobial doses of doxycycline for 3 months) and the control group (classical debridement only). We analyzed the periodontal parameters (probing depth, clinical attachment level, PBI and PI indices) at baseline, in the last day of medication and at 3 months after the drug therapy.

Results and Discussion: The reduction of the moderate and profound pockets was higher for the group with drug adjunctive therapy. The sites with an initial depth of 0-3mm in the study group presented also a slight attachment gain.

Conclusions: The therapy with sub-antimicrobial doses of doxycycline generated significant clinical improvement in patients with chronic periodontitis and osteoporosis, an improvement which can reduce the necessity of surgical procedures.


Background/Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri lozenges as an adjunctive therapeutic agent in combination with scaling and root planing in a randomized, clinical trial of volunteers with periodontitis stage IV.

Material and Methods: The study included 40 patients diagnosed with periodontitis divided into 2 groups of 20 patients by random sample method. The first group of patients used Lactobacillus reuteri lozenges after nonsurgical periodontal therapy for a period of 40 days while the second group of patients was treated with non-surgical periodontal therapy without lozenges. Periodontal clinical parameters were registered for all patients before treatment and after 40 days. Samples of saliva from patients before and 40 days after treatment were analyzed by the PCR method for pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia. Assessments were made on day 0 before treatment for patients of both groups and after 40 days.

Results: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis show a statistically significant difference between the two study groups. Results were not statistically significant for Prevotella intermedia (P= 0.5598).

Conclusions: The present study confirms the positive effects of L. reuteri lozenges after non-surgical periodontal therapy and the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. Considering the beneficial effects of probiotics, L.reuteri could serve as a useful adjunct or maybe even as an alternative to periodontal treatment when scaling and root planing might be contraindicated or has to be postponed.

pharmaceutical codex. 401-404. 5. Błażewicz, J. & Zembol d-Guła, A. (2007). Milled corn products in worts production, Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., Vol. 57, No. 4(A), pp. 41-44. 6. Agu, R. & Palmer, G. (199 8). A reassessment of sorghum for lager-beer brewing, Bioresource Technol., 66, 253-261. DOI: 10.1016/S0960-8524(98)00047-9. 7. Błażewicz, J., Figiel, A. , Stępień, B. & Peroń, S. (2002). Infl uence of unmalted grain on the properties of thickened malt worts; Acta Agrophysica 77, 7-14. 8. Lloyd, W. (1986). Centenary re view-adjuncts; Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 92, 336