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Acute toxicity studies of aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri

-834. Gad SC and Chengelis CP. (1988). Acute toxicity testing perspectives and horizons . The Telford Press. Caldwell, N. J. pp. 2-4, 318, 156, 165-167, 159. Iizuka T, Moriyama H and Nagai M. (2006). Vasorelaxant effects of methyl brevifolincarboxylate from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruri. Biol Pharm Bull   29 : 177-179. Klaassen CD, Eaton DL. (1991). Principles of toxicology, in Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poison (Amdur MO, Doull JD and Klaassen CD eds) pp. 32-33, Pergamon Press, New York

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Acute toxicity of 31 different nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) tested in adulthood and in early life stages – comparative study

danio eggs with that of adult bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus . Notulae Naturage Acad Natur Sci Philadelphia 381 : 1-9. Choi JE, Kim S, Ahn JH, Youn P, Kang JS, Park K, Yi J and Ryu DY. (2010). Induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis by silver nanoparticles in the liver of adult zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicol 100 : 151-159. Colvin VL. (2003). The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials. Nature Biotechnol 21 : 1166-1170. Ensenbach U, Nagel R and Urich K. (1989). Acute toxicity

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Acute toxicity of experimental fertilizers made of blood meal, spent coffee ground and biomass ash

-DULEWSKA CZ., POLUSZYŃSKA J., MIŁEK D., SZEWCZYK A., SŁAWIŃSKA I. 2017. Acute toxicity of experimental fertilizers made of spent coffee grounds. Waste and Biomass Valorization. DOI 10.1007/s12649-017-9980-3. CIESIELCZUK T., ROSIK-DULEWSKA CZ., WIŚNIEWSKA E. 2015. Possibilities of coffee spent ground use as a slow action organo-mineral fertilizer. Annual Set the Environment Protection. Vol. 17 p. 422-437. CIR(EU) No 354/2014. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 354/2014 of 8 April 2014 amending and correcting Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 laying down

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Effect of fly ash-lime treatment on the acute toxicity of greywater towards Daphnia magna

:// (website accessed on: December 25 th , 2016). Tomasso JR, Carmichael GJ (1986) Acute toxicity of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate to the Guadalupe bass, Micropterus treculi , Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 36: 866-870. Tyagi VK, Chopra AK, Durgapal NC, Arvid K (2007) Evaluation of Daphnia magna as an indicator of toxicity and treatment efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plant. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 11: 61-67. Van Voast WA (2003) Geochemical signature of formation waters associated with coal-bed methane. Aapg. Bull. 87: 667

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Advances in acute toxicity testing: strengths, weaknesses and regulatory acceptance

2 (6): 450–453. Ekwall B. (1999). Overview of the Final MEIC Results: II. The In Vitro – In Vivo Evaluation, Including the Selection of a Practical Battery of Cell Tests for Prediction of Acute Lethal Blood Concentrations in Humans. Toxicol in Vitro 13 : 665–673. Enegide C, David A, Fidelis SA. (2013). A New Method for Determining Acute Toxicity in Animal Models. Toxicol Int 20 (3): 224–226. Erkekoglu P, Giray BK, Basaran N. (2011). 3R Principle and Alternative Toxicity Testing Methods. FABAD J Pharm Sci 36 : 101–117. Escher SE

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Characteristics of Acute Toxicity Dynamics of Selected Toxicants on Aquatic Crustaceans

Ecotoxicology. 2nd Ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2003. ISBN: 9781566705462 - CAT# L1546. [10] Traudt EM, Ranville JF, Smith SA, Meyer JS. A test of the additivity of acute toxicity of binary-metal mixtures of Ni with Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna, using the inflection point of the concentration -response curves. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2016;35:1843-1851. DOI: 10.1002/etc.3342. [11] Cui R, Kwak JI, An YJ. Comparative study of the sensitivity of Daphnia galeata and Daphnia magna to heavy metals. Ecotox Environ Safety. 2018;162:63-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018

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Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats

: 521-534. Iwu MM. (1993). Handbook of African Medicinal plantsC.RC Press, LL.C. USA pp. 1-13. Jaykaran, Bhardwaj P, Kantharia N, Yadav P, Panwar A. (2009). Acute toxicity study of an aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa Linn. bark in albino mice. The Internet Journal of Toxicology 6 (1). Kang WS, Chung KH, Lee JY, Park JB, Zhang YH, Yoo HS and Yun YP (2001). Antiplatelet activity of green tea catechins is mediated by inhibition of cytoplasmic calcium increase. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 38 : 875

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Protective efficacy of various carbonyl compounds and their metabolites, and nutrients against acute toxicity of some cyanogens in rats: biochemical and physiological studies

. (1997). Cyanide induced DNA fragmentation in mammalian cell cultures. Toxicology 123 : 207–215. Bhattacharya R, Rao P, Singh P, Yadav SK, Upadhyayay P, Malla S, Gujar NL, Lomash V, Pant SC. (2014). Biochemical, oxidative and histological changes caused by sub-acute oral exposure of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: Ameliorative effect of α-ketoglutarate. Food Chem Toxicol 67 : 201–211. Bhattacharya R, Satpute RM, Hariharakrishnan J, Tripathi H, Saxena, PB. (2009). Acute toxicity of some synthetic cyanogens in rats and their response to oral treatment

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Acute toxicity of vipoxin and its components: is the acidic component an “inhibitor” of PLA2 toxicity?


Vipoxin is a heterodimeric neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Bulgarian long-nosed viper Vipera ammodytes meridionalis. Vipoxin represents a noncovalent association of two subunits - a basic and toxic phospholipase A2 enzyme, and an acidic nonenzymatic component (vipoxin’s acidic component). It was postulated that the phospholipase A2 subunit was more toxic than the whole vipoxin complex and the function of the acidic component was to reduce the enzymatic and toxic activities of the basic phospholipase A2. In the present study, we report new data on the acute toxicity (LD50) of vipoxin and its individual separated components. Vipoxin LD50 (mice, i.p. and i.v.) values were found to be 0.7-1.2 mg/kg b.w. (i.p.) and 0.9-1.3 mg/kg b.w. (i.v.). The established LD50 values for the separated pure phospholipase A2 subunit are higher - 10.0-13.0 mg/kg b.w (i.p.) and 2.2-3.0 mg/kg b.w. (i.v.), i.e. the individual phospholipase A2 subunit displays less toxic activity than vipoxin, contrary to the data published in the literature. The reconstituted vipoxin complex (obtained after preliminary incubation of pure separated phospholipase A2 and acidic component showed enzyme activity and toxicity comparable to that of the native vipoxin complex. Addition of acidic component to the phospholipase A2 subunit showed a positive effect on the enzymatic activity, reaching maximal enzyme reaction rate of acidic component to phospholipase A2 molar ratio of 0.8:1 on using 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy-benzoic acid as substrate. For the first time we showed that the acidic subunit was absolutely required for the toxic activity of vipoxin. Based on the obtained results, we assume that the function of the acidic component is to stabilize the neurotoxin’s quaternary structure, required for its toxic and enzymatic activities, similarly to the role of the acidic component of crotoxin.

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Pharmacological activities of some triazinopyrazolothieno pyrimidine derivatives

-inflammatory activity and acute toxicity studies of hydroalcoholic extract of Herissantia tiubae , Bras. J. Pharmacogn . 26 (2016) 225–232; DOI: 10.1016/j.bjp.2015.11.001.

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