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References Bandolier Extra. Evidence-based health care. Acute Pain. 2003. Bell WR. Acetaminophen and warfarin. Undesirable synergy. JAMA. 1998; 279(9):702-703. Ben-Bassat J, Peretz E, Sulman FG. Analgesimetry and ranking of analgesic drug by the receptacle method. Arch Int Pharmacodyn. 1959; 122:434-447. Bensenor IM. To use or not to use dipyrone? Or maybe, Central Station versus ER? That is the question. Sao Paulo Med. J. 2001; 119(6):190-191. Desborough JP. The stress response to trauma and


Introduction. The most frequent type of acute pain is the postoperative pain. The postoperative situation consists of three stages: the preoperative stage, the surgical phase, and the postoperative stage. Each of the stages is equally important, and it is crucial that medical staff should minimize the stress and discomfort related to hospitalization. Specialists suggest that the preparation to surgery should correspond to the patient’s style of responding to stress. The level of individually experienced pain depends not only on the type of surgery, but also on psychological factors and the patient’s personality traits.

Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the factors that affect the experience of acute pain in postoperative patients.

Material and methods. The study was conducted in Lublin, Poland, and comprised 100 patients of the local surgical wards. After incomplete tests were excluded, the group of 68 patients (37 women and 31 men, aged 20-73) was selected. The following test methods were used: The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) by R. Melzack, Test Noo-dynamiki [The Test of Noo-Dynamics] (T.N-D) by K. Popielski, Kwestionariusz Poczucia Odpowiedzialności [The Sense of Responsibility Questionnaire] (KPO) by L. Suchocka, The IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire (Self Analysis Form) by R.B. Cattell.

Results. The study results show that the evaluation of pain is affected, at the statistically significant level, by the patients’ subjective experience of feeling ill, their surgery-related discomfort, and the intensity of pain. The patients who are not oriented towards future goals and tasks, closing upon themselves, evaluate the postoperative situation as difficult and distressing. The orientation towards new goals motivates the patients to fast recovery.

Conclusion. The test results confirmed the research hypotheses. The study findings may be useful for medical professionals interested in the functioning of an individual in the situation of disease.

CH, Hogan LA, Jung BF, Kulick DI, et al. Risk factors for acute pain and its persistence following breast cancer surgery. Pain 2005; 119: 16-25. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2005.09.008 24. Miller LR, Paulson D, Eshelman A, Bugenski M, Brown KA, Moonka D, et al. Mental health affects the quality of life and recovery after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 2013; 19: 1272-1278. doi: 10.1002/lt.23728 25. Cho CH, Seo HJ, Bae KC, Lee KJ, Hwang I, Warner JJ. The impact of depression and anxiety on self-assessed pain, disability, and quality of life in patients scheduled for

-operative opioid use and acute pain after fast-track total knee arthroplasty. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2016; 60: 529-536. doi: 10.1111/aas.12667 7. Hina N, Fletcher D, Poindessous-Jazat F, Martinez V. Hyperalgesia induced by low-dose opioid treatment before orthopaedic surgery: An observational case-control study. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2015; 32: 255-261. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000000197 8. Rosenthal BD, Suleiman LI, Kannan A, Edelstein AI, Hsu WK, Patel AA. Risk Factors for Prolonged Postoperative Opioid Use after Spine Surgery: A Review of Dispensation Trends From a State

therapeutic touch • 30-40% relief in fatigue and pain. • Normalisation of thyroid function Prayer Witkop et al. 2012 4 Description • Identify language used by PWH to describe pain • Describe pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods of pain management used • Determine perceived effectiveness of pain management • Determine which healthcare practitioner manages pain in PWH • 764 PWH self-reported results • The use of prayer to manage acute pain (28% N=189;) and chronic pain (29% N = 170), and faith for acute pain (21%) N = 137, and chronic pain (22%) N = 130 Image


There has been substantial interest in the use of ketamine for perioperative analgesia. Recently published articles on ‘low dose’ ketamine mark the resurgence in interest in the use of the drug for acute pain. Continued interest in ketamine as an anti-depressant also has opened the door to applications beyond the operating room. In this article, we will review: the history of ketamine’s clinical use; basic ketamine pharmacology; evidence for the use of perioperative ketamine for analgesia; comments on patient selection for ketamine research; a discussion of the safety and side effect profile of ketamine infusions beyond the operating room; and, lastly, ketamine as a treatment option for psychiatric diseases.

References 1. Maxwell C, Nicoara A. New developments in the treatment of acute pain after thoracic surgery. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2014; 27: 6-11. doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000029 2. Wildgaard K, Petersen RH, Hansen HJ, Møller-Sørensen H, Ringsted TK, Kehlet H. Multimodal analgesic treatment in video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy using an intraoperative intercostal catheter. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2011; 41: 1072-1077. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezr151 3. Joint Commission. Safe use of opioids in hospitals. Sentinel Event Alert 2012; (49): 1-5 4. Jarzyna D


Ketamine and magnesium can interact in additive, supra-additive and antagonistic manners in analgesia or anesthesia. Ketamine is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist. Magnesium is an endogenous non-competitive NMDA antagonist that causes anion channel blockade in a dose-dependent manner. It has been established that ketamine and magnesium interact synergistically in the tail-immersion test in rats.

To determine the role of serotonergic, GABAergic and noradrenergic systems in analgesia induced by the ketamine-magnesium sulfate combination.

Experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats (200-250 g). Antinociception was evaluated by the tail-immersion test.

Methysergide (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, sc) administered alone did not affect nociception in rats. Methysergide (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, sc) antagonized the antinociceptive effect of the ketamine (5 mg/kg)-magnesium sulfate (5mg/kg) combination. Bicuculline (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, sc) given alone did not change the threshold to thermal stimuli in rats. Bicuculline (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, sc) antagonized the antinociceptive effect of the ketamine (5 mg/kg)-magnesium sulfate (5 mg/kg) combination. Yohimbine (0.5, 1 and 3 mg/kg, sc) applied alone did not change nociception. Yohimbine at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg did not influence the effect of ketamine (5 mg/kg)-magnesium sulfate (5 mg/kg), while yohimbine at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg antagonized the antinociceptive effect of this combination.

Serotonergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic systems participate, at least in part, in the antinociceptive effect of the ketamine-magnesium sulfate combination in acute pain in rats.

References 1. Merskey H, Bogduk N, editors. Classification of chronic pain: descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms . Second edition. Seattle: IASP Press; 1994. 2. Talbot H, Hutchinson P, Edbrooke DL, Wrench I, Kohlhardt SR. Evaluation of a local anaesthesia regimen following mastectomy. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 664-7. 3. Katz J, Poleshuck EL, Andrus CH, Hogan LA, Jung BF, Kulick DI, et al. Risk factors for acute pain and its persistence following breast cancer surgery. Pain 2005; 119: 16-25. 4. Almeida TF, Roizenblatt S, Tufik


Incorporation of cyclodextrins (CDs) into electrospun nanofibrous materials can be considered as potential candidates for functional medical textile applications. Naproxen (NAP) is a type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly administered for the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever. Drug-inclusion complex formation with CDs is an approach to improve the aqueous solubility via molecular encapsulation of the drug within the cavity of the more soluble CD molecule. In this study, NAP or different NAP-CD inclusion complexes loaded nanofibres were successfully produced through electrospinning and characterised. The inclusion complex loaded mats exhibited significantly faster release profiles than NAP-loaded thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) mats. Overall, NAP-inclusion complex loaded TPU electrospun nanofibres could be used as drug delivery systems for acute pain treatments since they possess a highly porous structure that can release the drug immediately.