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reliability in financial reporting. Highly reliable financial reports solely include realized cash flows, whereas highly relevant reports are concerned with the current value of expected future cash flows. Since accounting rules and legislation demand both relevance and reliability in proportion, financial reporting is therefore associated with certain elements of discretion and managerial judgment. Academic accounting literature provides many definitions of the term earnings management. Derived from the opportunistic use of discretion in financial reporting, early


Central and Eastern European countries undergo many political, structural, social and economic changes. In the past decades such countries, like Croatia and Poland, witnessed a fundamental transformation of their societies and economies, which impacted accounting systems as well. The mail goal of the paper is to research the main differences in accounting systems in the Republic of Croatia and Poland. The research methodology is based on a critical analysis of scholarly literature done by the bibliometric analysis, analysis Polish and Croatian accouting standards and legal acts. Based on inductive and deductive reasoning, the paper reveals key determinants and differences of accounting frameworks in Croatia and Poland. The paper proves that it is crucial to consider economic and cultural differences in comparative international accounting research. Research results of the paper will contribute the international accounting literature but also have an impact on the European Union accounting harmonisation references.


Purpose: Drawing on the experience of adoption of a model based on the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by Portuguese non-financial unlisted companies in 2010, called Sistema de Normalização Contabilística (SNC), this paper explores auditors’ perceptions regarding dimensions of relevance and suitability of the new accounting model to the Portuguese setting, major problems encountered, and the main engendered benefits.

Methodology: An interpretative approach based on qualitative research methods was adopted, in which sixteen interviews with statutory auditors were conducted from a vantage point in 2017, seven years after the formal implementation of the IFRS-based model.

Findings: Evidence suggests enduring problems but mostly a significant level of legitimation and institutionalization of the IFRS-based model: (i) the perceived motivations for SNC adoption are a good fit with the theoretically acknowledged motivations underlying accounting convergence; (ii) the principle-based standards and the fair value were largely perceived favorably; and (iii) the IFRS-based model brought about a number of benefits as expected ex ante.

Implications: Findings shed light on the potential of the IFRS model to conform to countries whose accounting systems are remarkably disparate – as it was in Portugal – and offer an agenda for regulators and local and international policymakers.

Originality and value: This study contributes to the accounting literature on IFRS adoption by providing empirical evidence from a European country that posited an a priori adverse context.


The novel hydrophilic back-extraction agent TS-BTPhen (3,3ʹ,3ʺ,3ʹʺ-[3-(1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-diyl)-1,2,4-triazine-5,5,6,6-tetrayl]tetrabenzenesulfonic acid) was tested for its selectivity towards Am(III) over Cm(III) and Eu(III) with a TODGA (N,N,Nʹ,Nʹ-tetraoctyldiglycolamide) based solvent. Batch experiments were carried out using TS-BTPhen dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solution with tracers of 152Eu, 241Am and 244Cm. A significant increase of the separation factor for Cm over Am from SFCm/Am = 1.6 up to SFCm/Am = 3.3 was observed compared to the use of a TODGA-nitric acid system alone. Furthermore, stripping was possible at high nitric acid concentrations (0.6-0.7 mol/L) resulting in a low sensitivity to acidity changes. The influence of the TS-BTPhen concentration was analyzed. A slope of -2 was expected taking into account literature stoichiometries of the lipophilic analogue CyMe4BTPhen. However, a slope of -1 was found. Batch stripping kinetics showed fast kinetics for the trivalent actinides. As an alternative organic ligand the methylated TODGA derivate Me-TODGA (2-methyl-N,N,Nʹ,Nʹ-tetraoctyldiglycolamide) was tested in combination with the hydrophilic TS-BTPhen. The Am(III) separation was achieved at even higher nitric acid concentrations compared to TODGA.

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