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et al., 2007 ). The consequence is an increase in blood Po 2 and a decrease in P CO2 which shifts the oxyhemoglobin saturation curve so that blood becomes more oxygenated at a similar Po 2 ( Wagner, 2001 ; West, 1982 ). It is believed that high HVR values represent better acclimatization ( Katayama et al., 2001 ; Smith et al., 2001 ). Yet, Bernardi et al. (2006 ) showed that high HVR values did not accompany the response of high-level alpinists even when they were acclimatized. During exercise in acute hypoxic exposure, V ˙ E ${\dot V_E}$ increases more

-71. Teixeira da Silva J.A., Giang D.T.T., Tanaka M., 2006. Novel photoautotrophic micropropagation of Spathiphyllum. Photosynthetica 44(1): 53-61. Teixeira da Silva J.A., Giang D.T.T., Tanaka M., 2005a. Micropropagation of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in a novel CO2-enriched vessel. J. Plant Biotechnol. 7(1): 67-74. Teixeira da Silva J.A., Giang D.T.T., Tanaka M., 2005b. Effective acclimatization of Epidendrum in vitro using a novel micropropagation vessel. Biotechnology 4(3): 214-220. Teixeira da Silva J.A., Giang D.T.T., Tanaka M., 2005c. In vitro acclimatization of

environmental conditions: The passive system. Journal of Applied Physiology , 87 (5), 1957-1972. Fiala D., Lomas K. J., Stohrer M., 2001, Computer prediction of human thermoregulatory and temperature responses to a wide range of environmental conditions. International Journal of Biometeorology , 45, 143-159. Fourt J., Hollies N. R. S., 1970, Clothing. Comfort and function. M. Dekker Inc., New York. Freitas de C. R., Grigorieva E. A., 2009, The Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI): a preliminary study of the methodology applied to climatic conditions of the Russian


Knautia sarajevensis is an endemic plant of the Dinaric Alps and is mainly distributed on Bosnian Mountains. Due to the quite large flower heads and easy maintenance, this plant has a potential use as a substitute ornamental plant for K. arvensis in perennial beds. The current study evaluated the germination process in different treatments in an attempt to suppress dormancy and increase germination rate, and to develop a successful protocol for micropropagation. An over 60% germination rate was achieved through cultivation of seeds on MS basal medium with reduced mineral nutrient composition and the absence of sucrose. On the other hand, a below 10% germination rate was achieved with untreated seeds. Suppression of apical dominance was achieved through application of high concentrations of kinetin, apical shoot decapitation or cultivation of shoots in liquid media. Overall, liquid cultures were more successful as a micropropagation system for this plant. Shoots spontaneously developed roots on multiplication treatments and were successfully acclimatized. Moreover, phenolic compound profile was analysed in the light of the possible medicinal potential of this plant. Variable amounts of total phenolic compounds as well as individual phenolics were recorded, according to treatment and solidification of media. An increase in rosmarinic acid content was reported for kinetin treatments and acclimatized plants comparing to mother plants in natural habitat. The present study shows that choice of cytokinin concentration, explant type as well as culture type influences not only shoot proliferation and apical dominance suppression but also in vitro production of phenolics.


The relationship between introduced trees roots and soils in which they grow is the most important factor influencing the adaptation, growth and health of these trees. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify which physical soil properties enhance or limit the vitality of the studied introduced trees in the Arboretum Mlyňany. Soil properties were studied in seven soil profiles under dense monocultures of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Juniperus Chinensis, Thuja orientalis, Thuja plicata, Picea orientalis and Pinus nigra. The results showed that all stagnic horizons had exceeded the limit values of total porosity and bulk density, hence these horizons were compacted. Based on the soil and climatic requirements of the examined trees we conclude that the soil properties of their sites in arboretum are suitable for: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Thuja orientalis and Pinus nigra. Nevertheless, physical properties in profiles under Picea orientalis and Juniperus Chinensis do not permit rapid drainage of water, what is unfavourable for healthy development of these two species; while Thuja plicata demanding high moisture supply is grown on soil with high coarse porosity, a prerequisite of fast rainwater drainage. However, since none of the studied introduced trees had suffered from physiological disorders or diseases, they may be declared acclimatized well in the soil-climate conditions described in this study.

. Fitopatologia Brasileira 23(2): 158-160. GERACI R.B., 1996. Major viruses affecting orchids. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 65: 836-843. GRISONI M., DAVIDSON F., HYRONDELLE C., FARREYROL K., CARUANA M.L., PEARSON M., 2004. Nature, incidence, and symptomathology of viruses infecting Vanilla thaitanensis in French Polynesia. Plant Dis. 88: 119-124 HANUS-FAJERSKA E., 1999. Rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated virusinfected tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln. 469: 555-561. HU J.S., FERREIRA S., WANG M., 1994. Movement and inactivation


This study presents an efficient improvement in the in vitro propagation protocol for one cloned genotype of lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus L.) by assessing the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) concentrations, different cytokinins and amino acids and their concentrations on shoot proliferation, the effects of shoot length on rooting and the effects of compost type (sterile and non-sterile) on acclimatization. The best growth medium for multiple shoot induction was the MS medium supplemented with a combination of 1 mg l−1 BA, 100 mg l−1 tryptophan and 0.5 mg l-1 GA3, which gave a mean shoot length of 1.64 ± 0.07 cm and a mean bud number of 5.46 ± 0.16. The best results in terms of root length, rooting rate and the number of roots per shoot were obtained with 2 cm long shoots. The rooted plantlets were readily acclimatized in the sterile compost. In conclusion, the micropropagation protocol developed in this study can be used for large-scale propagation of P. lentiscus L. in reforestation programmes.


Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds is an aromatic plant used for its medicinal values. This study aims to select appropriate conditions for in vitro propagation of M. rotundifolia (L.) Huds and to evaluate yield and antioxidants activity of its essential oils (EOs).

The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different concentrations of growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Gibberellin (GA3).

Hydrodistillated EOs obtained from acclimatized and mother plant, were evaluated for their antioxidant activity. Tests were performed on DPPH free radical-scavenging, ABTS and CUPRAC assays.

Shoot induction and multiplication were successfully carried out on MS medium supplemented with the following hormones combinations: 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l GA3 and 0.5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l GA3, respectively. Stem length, nodes and leaves number measured from development vitroplant were 6.89 cm, 5.22 nodes and 11.92 leaves per vitroplant, respectively.

In vitro rooted plants were successfully acclimatized at a temperature of 23 ± 2°C and a long day photoperiod with a total survival rate exceeding 95%.

EO yield of acclimated plant varied between (0.88-1.49 ml/100 g dry matter) compared to wild plant (0.73 ml/100 g dry matter). The antioxidant potential of EOs from acclimated plant showed on DPPH free radical-scavenging, ABTS and CUPRAC assays values of (IC50: 4.18-24.93 mg/ml), (IC50: 0.51-1.56 mg/ml) and (A0.50: 0.34-2.71 mg/ml), respectively. In contrast, the wild plant exhibited on the same tests the values of (IC50: 10.35 mg/ml), (IC50: 0.12 mg/ml) and (A0.50: 0.99 mg/ml), respectively.

The results suggest that micropropagation of M. rotundifolia (L.) Huds can be an interesting alternative for producing important plant material with the possibility to modulate EO yield and its antioxidant potential for future commercial purposes.


Between 1996-2015, at V.R.D.S Buzau were conducted researches regarding the acclimatization, breeding and elaboration of crop technology for a new vegetable species, Momordica charantia (bitter cucumber). There were purchased and studied a large number of genotypes which were assessed for a long period; 4 of those have demonstrated increased adaptability, for which they were retained and multiplied in lineage. In time, by specific cucurbits improvement techniques were obtained 4 genetically stabilized accessions noted as G1, early accessions with large fruits,G2, medium fruit size, G3, medium fruit size and L4 with small crunchy fruits, semi tardy. Of these, L3 was homologated and patented under the name of Rodeo, and the other 3 will be proposed for homologation in the future. The studies demonstrated that this species has well adapted to our pedoclimatic conditions; it can be cultivated both in greenhouses and in open fields, in warmer areas, mentioning that for both crop variants it is recommended a drilling system. The new genotypes support various technological variants and can be ecologically cultivated with remarkable results.


Objective: The aim of our research was to identify physiological and biochemical changes induced by training at medium altitude.

Methods: Ten biathlon athletes underwent 28-day training camp at medium altitude in order to improve their aerobic effort, following the living high-base train high-interval train low (Hi-Hi-Lo) protocol. There were investigated three categories of functional and biochemical parameters, targeting the hematological changes (RBC, HCT, HGB), the oxidative (lipoperoxid, free malondialdehyde and total malondialdehyde) and antioxidative balance (the hydrogen donor capacity, ceruloplasmin and uric acid) and the capacity of effort (the maximum aerobic power, the cardiovascular economy in effort, the maximum O2 consumption).

Results: All the biochemical and functional evaluated parameters showed significant increases between the pre-training testing and post-training testing (5.13 ± 0.11 vs. 6.50 ± 0.09, p < 0.0001 for RBC; 44.80 ± 1.22 vs. 51.31 ± 2.31, p < 0.0001 for HCT; 15.06 ± 0.33 vs. 17.14 ± 0.25, p < 0.0001 for HGB; 1.32 ± 0.04 vs.1.62 ± 0.01, p < 0.0001 for LPx; 1.61 ± 0.01 vs. 1.73 ± 0.01, p < 0.0001 for free MDA; 2.98 ± 0.08 vs. 3.37 ± 0.03, p < 0.0001 for total MDA; 45.92 ± 0.13 vs. 57.98 ± 0.12, p < 0.0001 for HD; 25.95 ± 0.13 vs. 31.04 ± 0.06, p < 0.0001 for Crp; 3.47 ± 0.03 vs.7.69 ± 0.02, p < 0.0001 for UA; 63.91 ± 1.00 vs. 81.53 ± 1.97, p < 0.0001 for MAP; 33.13 ± 0.57 vs. 57.41 ± 0.63, p < 0.0001 for CVEE; 4190 ± 50.45 vs. 5945 ± 46.48, p < 0.0001 for VO2max).

Conclusions: Aerobic effort capacity of biathlon athletes has increased in the post-training period, using Hi-Hi-Lo protocol.