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Abstract

We analyse the access to different institutional pathways to higher education for second-generation students, focusing on youths that hold a higher-education entrance certificate. The alternative vocational pathway appears to compensate to some degree, compared to the traditional academic one, for North-African and Southern-European youths in France, those from Turkey in Germany, and to a lesser degree those from Portugal, Turkey, Ex-Yugoslavia, Albania/Kosovo in Switzerland. This is not the case in Switzerland for Western-European, Italian, and Spanish youths who indeed access higher education via the academic pathway more often than Swiss youths. Using youth panel and survey data, multinomial models are applied to analyse these pathway choices.

Abstract

We propose a circuit extension handshake for Tor that is forward secure against adversaries who gain quantum computing capabilities after session negotiation. In doing so, we refine the notion of an authenticated and confidential channel establishment (ACCE) protocol and define pre-quantum, transitional, and post-quantum ACCE security. These new definitions reflect the types of adversaries that a protocol might be designed to resist. We prove that, with some small modifications, the currently deployed Tor circuit extension handshake, ntor, provides pre-quantum ACCE security. We then prove that our new protocol, when instantiated with a post-quantum key encapsulation mechanism, achieves the stronger notion of transitional ACCE security. Finally, we instantiate our protocol with NTRU-Encrypt and provide a performance comparison between ntor, our proposal, and the recent design of Ghosh and Kate.

Résumé

Cette étude repose sur les principes de la traductologie réaliste, c’est-à-dire l’observation des produits de l’activité de traduction comme voie d’accès aux éléments et aux paramètres qui la constituent. La spécificité des noms propres constitue l’obstacle naturel à leur traduction au sens classique du terme mais leur potentiel sémantique peut, de façon naturelle ou par insertion dans des contextes de création littéraire ou pragmatique, générer des modes de traduction qui vont du littéralisme à la recréation, sans parler de ceux qui correspondent aux sollicitations de normes temporelles ou stylistiques. L’épistémologie du nom propre se construit en fin de compte dans le cadre d’une sémiotique qui intègre les fonctions du signe dans son contexte social de production et celles qu’on lui fait assumer dans les textes.

Résumé

En s’appuyant sur les données PISA Suisse 2009, cet article se concentre sur les modes de scolarisation des élèves migrants de deuxième génération et leurs conséquences au plan des inégalités d’acquis scolaires. Nos résultats indiquent qu’à la fin de la scolarité obligatoire les écarts entre élèves natifs et de deuxième génération restent prononcés en termes d’acquis scolaires et d’accès aux filières les plus exigeantes. Nous montrons ensuite que les cantons où la relégation des élèves de deuxième génération dans les filières les moins exigeantes est la plus marquée sont aussi ceux où les inégalités d’acquis par rapport aux natifs sont les plus importantes.

Résumé

Le destin éducatif de la nouvelle seconde génération en Suisse semble tracé. Ces jeunes sont orientés au sein des filières à exigences élémentaires ou étendues du secondaire I et ils obtiennent majoritairement des certificats professionnels. Cependant, à milieu social, type de filière et compétence scolaire égaux, ils sont plus nombreux que les natifs à emprunter les trajectoires de mobilité ascendante, menant à des formations générales de niveau secondaire ou tertiaire. L’analyse d’entretiens de jeunes albanophones originaires d’ex-Yougoslavie montre l’impact des aspirations élevées des jeunes et des familles, mais aussi l’importance de l’acquisition et de l’accès de ressources et informations clés qui permettent une mobilité ascendante.

Zusammenfassung

Unter Verwendung der Daten der Schweizer Volkszählungen von 1970 bis 2000 wird der Frage nachgegangen, wie sich die Geschlechterdisparitäten beim Erwerb der Studienzulassung (Maturität) wie auch weiterer Abschlüsse in der Schweiz in und mit der Bildungsexpansion verändert haben. Es kann aus einer handlungstheoretischen Perspektive dargelegt werden, wie sich im betrachteten Zeitverlauf geschlechtsspezifische Ungleichheiten von Bildungschancen verringern. Die höheren Chancen des Erwerbs der Studienberechtigung gleichen sich für die 18- bis 21-jährigen Frauen ebenso an, wie sich auch deren Wahrscheinlichkeit der Aufnahme einer (dualen) Berufsausbildung erhöht hat. Gleichzeitig erlaubt die Differenzierung der untersuchten Abschlüsse im Vergleich zu vorangegangenen Untersuchungen präzisere Aussagen zur Entwicklung weiterer herkunftsbedingter Ungleichheiten.

Abstract

Intellectual disability (ID) is a common disorder, with major consequences for individual, family and society. Due to clinical and genetic heterogeneity of ID, in about 50% of cases an etiologic diagnosis cannot be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a combination of MLPA kits to establish the diagnosis in 369 patients with syndromic ID and normal or uncertain routine karyotype results. All patients were assessed for chromosome imbalance using SALSA MLPA P064 or P096 kits, if the phenotype was suggestive of a microdeletion syndrome (subgroup A - 186 patients), or subtelomeric P036 and P070 kits, if the phenotype was not suggestive of a microdeletion syndrome or if the result of the standard karyotype was uncertain (subgroup B - 183 patients). Abnormal results detected by these kits were further characterized using appropriate follow-up MLPA kits (Telomere Follow-up set, P029-A1, P250-B2, ME028-B1). In subgroup A we identified 25 patients with microdeletions (13.4%). Using subtelomere screening and follow-up kits in subgroup B we detected cryptic rearrangements in 7.5% cases and identified the origin of the unknown material noticed in the standard karyotype in 10 out of 11 patients. Summarizing data from the two groups, the combined use of MLPA kits led to the diagnosis in 10.6% (38/358) patients with normal karyotype. Using follow-up MLPA kits allowed us both to confirm abnormalities and to determine their size, which facilitated the interpretation of the clinical significance of these rearrangements. For laboratories that do not have yet access to microarray technology, using several MLPA kits represents an effective strategy for establishing the diagnosis in ID patients.

Abstract

The Interreg IV-A research project aims at analysing the socioeconomic consequences of disruptive situations in microbusinesses of the rural French-Swiss Jura region. Several researchers are focusing on this topic within the various institutions involved in the project2. I will rather focus on the common characteristics of microbusinesses on either side of the border. These similarities pertain to the overlapping of the family and business spheres, which often involves an overlapping of statuses, and to the gender relations induced by this overlapping, as well as to the precarious economic situation of these small structures. This article aims at putting into perspective the typology originated by all the biographical interviews collected. This typology compares the figure of the family business heir to that of the self-taught entrepreneur. Such a difference in achieving professional independence brings about strategic patterns of separation/fusion between private and professional lives, patterns which are specific to each above-mentioned ideal type. This typology is yet to be refined, but it already draws attention to the strategies developed by players to separate - or not - family and business spheres. Thus, by tackling the issue of disruption through this typology of company managers, the article will show various influential elements in the event of a disruption, both on the viability of the company and on the personal itinerary of the people involved.

(I)”, Revista Calitatea-acces la succes, Issue3, (2007): 59-60 Gogoncea, D.: “Aplicarea sistemelor fuzzy în dinamica proceselor globale de standardizare în managementul calităţii”, Revista Calitatea-acces la succes, 8(9), (2007): 59-62 Marasini, D., Quatto, P., Ripamonti, E.: Intuitionistic fuzzy sets in questionnaire analysis. Quality & Quantity (2015). doi: 10.1007/s11135-015-0175-3 Isaic-Maniu, Al. and Vodă V.Ghe.,“Metode grafice în calitologie”, Revista Calitatea-acces la succes, 6, (2006): 58-60 Boşcaiu, V. and Vodă, V.Gh., “Aplicaţii ale seriilor de timp vectoriale în

Abstract

Introduction: Intradialytic hypertension with a prevalence of 15% among hemodialysis patients is with unknown pathophysiology, demographic, laboratoiy and clinical characteristic of patients, and it’s influence on longtenn clinical effects (cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, rate of hospitali­zation). The aim of the study is to present the clinical, laboratoiy and demographic characteristics of patients with intradialytic hypertension in our dialysis center.

Materials and methods: Out of 110 hemodialysis patients, 17 patients (15,45%) had intradialytic hy­pertension - started at a systolic pressure greater than 140 nun Hg or had an increase in systolic pres­sure more than 10 mm Hg during the session, and 17 patients were nonnotensive or had a drop in blood pressure dining the dialysis. HD were performed 3 times per week with a duration of 4-5 hours, on machines with controlled ultrafiltration and high flux syntetic membrane (polyetersulfon) sterilized with gamma rays. A dialysate with standard electrolytes content was used (Na+ 138 mmol/L, K+ 2,0 mmol/L, Ca++ 1,5 mmol/L, Mg +1,0 mmol/L, CH3COO- 3,0 mmol/L, Cl -110 mmol/1, HCO3 - 35 mmol/L). We analysed the following demographic and clinical characteristics: gender, age, BMI, dialysis vintage, vascular acces, cardiovascular comorbidity (cardiomyopathy, ischemic cardiac disease, peripheral artery disease, heart valve disease), number and type of antihypertensive drugs, weekly dose of erythropoesis - stimulating agent, standard monthly, three and six months laboratoiy analyzes, and sp Kt/V and PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software SPSS 17.0.

Results: hi both groups men were predominant (IDH group 88.23%, control group 64.07%). The IDH group was older (59.00 ± 7.64 versus 49.00 ± 13.91, p = 0.314) and with lower BMI (p = 0.246) compared to the control group. The DDH patients had significantly lower serum sodium and higher sodium gradient (135.75 ± 2.03 versus 137.33 ± 1.97, p = 0.042; 2.25 ± 1.98 versus 0.66 ± 1.44, p = 0.0267, respestively). All other laboratoiy findings showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. The IDH group had significantly higher interdialysis weight gain and less effective ultrafiltration individually at each dialysis session compared to the control group (2.23 ± 0.866 versus 2.37 ± 0.69, p = 0.011; 3.87 ± 1,26 versus 3.56 ± 1.18, p = 0.025, respectively). The systolic and mean arterial pressure after the HD were statistically higher in the IDH group.

Conclusion: Older age, lower BMI, borderline hyponatremia, higher sodium gradient and smaller ultrafiltration rate are the clinical characteristics of patients with intradialytic hypertension.