Epistemic adverbs, like other markers of epistemic modality, are concerned with the speaker’s assessment of the truth value of the proposition. In other words, they indicate that the speaker considers certain situations as possible, impossible, probable, certain, or uncertain. At the same time, they signal the author’s presence in the text, and invite the reader to make his/her own conclusions and interpretations. The use of modal markers has been demonstrated to differ across academic disciplines, but the specific differences concerning the use of epistemic adverbs have not been studied systematically. This paper investigates the use of epistemic adverbs in research articles representing six disciplines belonging to three different branches of science: the humanities (linguistics and literary studies), the social sciences (law and sociology), and the natural sciences (physics and medicine), with the aim of establishing discipline-specific tendencies in their use. The study is based on a corpus of 160 research articles compiled by the author. It begins with an attempt at delimiting the category of epistemic adverbs in English. After that, a list of the most frequent epistemic adverbs in the subcorpora of all the disciplines is established and discussed. The study demonstrates that frequent use of epistemic adverbs is largely a property of research articles in the humanities and social sciences. Medical and physics research articles use them significantly less often. The most frequent epistemic adverbs in the research articles under analysis include indeed, perhaps, clearly, certainly, of course, arguably, possibly, and reportedly. Some adverbs appear to be associated with specific disciplines, e.g., clearly (physics, linguistics, sociology, medicine), indeed (linguistics, literary studies, sociology), possibly, reportedly (medicine), arguably (law). The association of individual adverbs with specific disciplines may serve as an important clue to the understanding of their functions, in particular in the case of the less frequent ones, such as arguably and reportedly, which remain significantly understudied. The findings may also prove useful in teaching English for academic purposes.
Tourism - an academic discipline (discursive article)
The article discusses the main methodological dilemmas connected with tourism as a field of academic research. The first part presents tourism as an area of interest in various academic disciplines. The second is a critical discussion on multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to the study of tourism. The third features an analysis of the methodological standpoints concerning possibilities for the autonomy of tourism as an academic discipline. The summary proposes a model of development for tourism studies aimed at the autonomy of academic tourism.
The specific objective of the paper is to discuss the mutual relations between tourism and sport and, in a wider context, to draw the reader’s attention to the potentially excessive range of research goals in tourism as a discipline. Within the scope of discussion, the author looks at tourism as a social activity and a conceptual and research subject. Research questions, the signposts of intellectual debate, come down to whether tourism shares any common areas with sport (in its widest sense). If so, is such activity still tourism activity? Or perhaps these types of ‘sport-tourist’ activities should be excluded from discussion on tourism as an academic discipline because of their non-tourist character? The author assumes that there is an exploratory and cognitive zone between these two areas of social activity, going beyond both tourism and sport. Tourist activity and sport activity in fact differ from each other.
Many academic disciplines have offered important explanations of various aspects of emotion. In the Preface I try to present a wide range of research and stress that study on emotions had its origins in philosophy.
emerging eLearning paradigm, which is becoming increasingly evident across many academicdisciplines, providing further support for the notion that learning processes are no longer only supported by traditional teaching methods. It can be argued that today’s third level education (TLE) students are part of a new virtual generation, where blackboards and refill pads have been replaced by interactive white boards and laptops, as more interactive, animated and virtually orientated teaching aids assist the transition from traditional learning to eLearning.
The present paper examines the rudimentary concept of the Protestant theology as an academic discipline which was enunciated by Melanchthon in his prolegomena to all Latin and German versions of Loci which were the instrument indispensable for educating a next generation of the Protestant divines and for disseminating the ideas of the Reformation worldwide.
This paper attempts to deconstruct the image of Japan as the ‘Robot Kingdom’. The genesis of this image is analysed and integrated in the nihonron, an essentialist discourse on Japan, by taking into account the perspectives of different academic disciplines such as computer science and cultural studies. The different strands of the discourse are critically evaluated. In this way, the structure of the image of the ‘Robot Kingdom’ will become visible and can be analysed in the context of the nihonron.
The aim of this article is to explain the key theoretical foundations of business ethics as a social scientific and academic discipline that was established and further developed at the Faculty of Management at Comenius University in Bratislava. The authors of this article refer to this school of thought as the “Bratislava School of Business Ethics” with the intention of pointing out its relative autonomy in research and higher education in the Slovak academic environment.
Process in the context of the vocal-choral culture of the students of the music school. The concept of interdisciplinary is considered as a symbiosis of two or more academic disciplines in the formation of the vocal-choral culture of pupils in the musical-artistic field. In this case, interdisciplinary occurs in integrating the knowledge, capabilities and aptitudes formed, taking into account significant specific factors. Thus, the interdisciplinary approach is carried out through such disciplines as solfeggio, history of music, instrument, ensemble, but also the integration into the vocal-choral of the method of interiorizing the music through the philosophical, musical and psycho-pedagogical aspects.
Th e paper discusses some issues which are relevant for the further development of Public Administration as an academic discipline. Firstly, there is reason to be skeptical about universal features of this discipline, as there is much variety in the practice of Public Administration around the world. Secondly, the orientation of Public Administration towards public values is emphasized. Th irdly, the relevance of the concept of a democratic Rechtsstaat as a starting point for the design of Public Administration content must be stressed. And finally, the paper discusses institutional issues, e.g. the question if education of future civil servants should take place at government-controlled schools or within universities.