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The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a multifunctional cytokine stimulating the growth of vascular endothelial cells, survival and proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis. It is one of the most potent stimulants of vascular permeability. VEGF is found at high levels in inflammatory and tumour-associated pleural and abdominal effusions and is involved in their occurrence. In the present study, the blood plasma and abdominal fluid VEGF levels were assayed in thirty-one client-owned dogs with neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The VEGF concentration in abdominal fluid of dogs (n=6) with ascites was 190.70±34.35 pg/ml, in dogs (n=6) with peritonitis: 1449.81±365.42 pg/ml and in dogs (n=9) with tumour-associated effusion: 1993.13±202.56 pg/ml. Blood plasma VEGF of healthy dogs (control group, n=10) was 36.79±5.72 pg/ml, in dogs with ascites: 57.92±2.88 pg/ml, in dogs with peritonitis: 76.98±7.24 pg/ml and in dogs with tumour-associated effusion: 173.50±40.9 pg/ml. There were substantial differences between blood plasma and abdominal fluid VEGF levels.

occasions. Poor LV contraction was identified 2 times, both instances treated by inotropic drug administration. In addition, urinary bladder obstruction was found 2 times, which led to urinary catheter changes. Other miscellaneous findings from the additional US leading to changes in management were as follows: (1) pleural effusions leading to placement of percutaneous drainage (8 times), (2) intra-abdominal fluid/collection leading to placement of percutaneous drainage (4 times), (3) one intracardiac thrombus and 10 DVTs leading to administration of anticoagulant, and (4


This paper describes a thrombosis in the vena cava caudalis of a 15 year-old cat with ascites. Trauma and eventually feline enteric corona virus infection in the cat were not detected. In the intrahepatic region, a blockage of vena cava caudalis was brought to light by ultrasonographic imaging. An aspirate of abdominal fluid revealed modified transudate. Liver enzyme levels were increased in the serum sample of the cat. The levels of total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were elevated in the peritoneal fluid. Liver protection diet with L-carnitine, diuretic therapy and antimicrobial drugs were administrated for treatment of the cat. During the continuous treatment, the amount of abdominal fluid decreased, but never completely absorbed. L-carnitine was administered to the cat during the time of treatment, and subsequently the levels of liver enzymes decreased. However, the cat died because of recurrent ascites and persistent thrombosis. In conclusion, ultrasonographic examination was very reliable, non-invasive and highly useful diagnostic method for BCS and L-carnitine has crucial effects on the quality of life, energy metabolism and liver enzyme levels. However, the blockage of the vena cava caudalis could not completely respond to medical treatment and thrombosis should be eliminated by surgical intervention.

. (1997): The biochemical changes in blood, urine and abdominal fluid in dogs infected by Dirofilaria immilis. Ankara Üniv. Vet. Fak. Derg., 44: 267–276 [46] Schrey, C. F. (1996): Epidemiologische Fallanalyse der kardiovaskularen Dirofilariose (Herzwurmerkrankung) bei Hunden in Deutschland. Dissertation for PhD in Veterinary Medicine, der Freien Universitat Berlin. [47] Schrey, C. F., Trautvetter, E. (1998): Canine and Feline heartworm disease-diagnosis and therapy. Waltham Focus, 8: 23–30 [48] Segovia, J. M., Torres, J., Miquel, J., Llaneza, L., Feliu, C. (2001

-abdominal infection is frequently extremely difficult to treat [ 1 ], and the mortality rate is reportedly high [ 2 ]. In an animal sepsis model of intra-abdominal infection, intra-abdominal fluid contained larger amounts of cytokines than seen in circulating blood [ 8 ]. These cytokines are continuously transferred into circulating blood, causing damage to the vascular endothelium of internal organs. In the lungs, this increases vascular permeability, increasing the volume of interstitial fluid and causing the appearance of diffuse infiltration on CT [ 9 ]. In particular, if

et al . [ 76 ] have reported EUS-guided drainage of an abdominal fluid collection following a Whipple procedure using an Olympus GF-UCT240 EUS endoscope (GF-UCT240, Olympus, UK), which was passed through the gastrojejunostomy. The serosanguinous collection was completely aspirated using a 19-gauge Echotip-Ultra needle (Wilson-Cook, Ireland) under EUS guidance. The amylase level in the fluid was normal, and all of the cultures were sterile. [ 76 ] Especially for pancreatobiliary diseases, Ramesh et al . [ 77 ] have recommended that traditional per-os EUS should

used, and measurements Data collected included demographic data (age, sex), comorbidities, source of sepsis, sodium levels on days one, three, and seven. The source of sepsis was confirmed via a routine sepsis workup that included radiological evidence, culture and sensitivity of blood, sputum, and urine, abdominal fluid drain culture, tissue culture, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and cultures for suspected cases. Various variables including demographic data, comorbidities, source of sepsis, and sodium levels on days 1, 3, and 7 were assessed against the

be found incidentally by imaging performed in otherwise asymptomatic patients. The examination findings may include abdominal tenderness, palpable mass, and abdominal fluid collection. [ 5 ] There are various therapeutic strategies that can be employed in patients with pseudocyst and WON. In patients with mild symptoms, conservative management can be employed with good clinical outcome. [ 7 ] On the other hand, patients with severe symptoms resulting from pseudocyst and WON including infection and gastric outlet obstruction may require additional therapeutic