The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a multifunctional cytokine stimulating the growth of vascular endothelial cells, survival and proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis. It is one of the most potent stimulants of vascular permeability. VEGF is found at high levels in inflammatory and tumour-associated pleural and abdominal effusions and is involved in their occurrence. In the present study, the blood plasma and abdominal fluid VEGF levels were assayed in thirty-one client-owned dogs with neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The VEGF concentration in abdominal fluid of dogs (n=6) with ascites was 190.70±34.35 pg/ml, in dogs (n=6) with peritonitis: 1449.81±365.42 pg/ml and in dogs (n=9) with tumour-associated effusion: 1993.13±202.56 pg/ml. Blood plasma VEGF of healthy dogs (control group, n=10) was 36.79±5.72 pg/ml, in dogs with ascites: 57.92±2.88 pg/ml, in dogs with peritonitis: 76.98±7.24 pg/ml and in dogs with tumour-associated effusion: 173.50±40.9 pg/ml. There were substantial differences between blood plasma and abdominal fluid VEGF levels.
leading to changes in management were as follows: (1) pleural effusions leading to placement of percutaneous drainage (8 times), (2) intra-abdominalfluid/collection leading to placement of percutaneous drainage (4 times), (3) one intracardiac thrombus and 10 DVTs leading to administration of anticoagulant, and (4) cholecystitis leading to cholecystectomy (1 times). The US was also used to confirm the diagnosis of abdominal compartment syndrome by showing a narrow, compressed IVC in a patient with intra-abdominal hypertension who subsequently required decompressive
Aliye Sağkan Öztürk, Nuri Altuğ, Serkan İrfan Köse and Oktay Hasan Öztürk
This paper describes a thrombosis in the vena cava caudalis of a 15 year-old cat with ascites. Trauma and eventually feline enteric corona virus infection in the cat were not detected. In the intrahepatic region, a blockage of vena cava caudalis was brought to light by ultrasonographic imaging. An aspirate of abdominal fluid revealed modified transudate. Liver enzyme levels were increased in the serum sample of the cat. The levels of total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were elevated in the peritoneal fluid. Liver protection diet with L-carnitine, diuretic therapy and antimicrobial drugs were administrated for treatment of the cat. During the continuous treatment, the amount of abdominal fluid decreased, but never completely absorbed. L-carnitine was administered to the cat during the time of treatment, and subsequently the levels of liver enzymes decreased. However, the cat died because of recurrent ascites and persistent thrombosis. In conclusion, ultrasonographic examination was very reliable, non-invasive and highly useful diagnostic method for BCS and L-carnitine has crucial effects on the quality of life, energy metabolism and liver enzyme levels. However, the blockage of the vena cava caudalis could not completely respond to medical treatment and thrombosis should be eliminated by surgical intervention.
, M., Özlem, M., Tanyel, B., Öcal, N., Sel, T. (1997): The biochemical changes in blood, urine and abdominalfluid in dogs infected by Dirofilaria immilis. Ankara Üniv. Vet. Fak. Derg., 44: 267–276
 Schrey, C. F. (1996): Epidemiologische Fallanalyse der kardiovaskularen Dirofilariose (Herzwurmerkrankung) bei Hunden in Deutschland. Dissertation for PhD in Veterinary Medicine, der Freien Universitat Berlin.
 Schrey, C. F., Trautvetter, E. (1998): Canine and Feline heartworm disease-diagnosis and therapy
Guoxin Wang, Xiang Liu, Sheng Wang, Nan Ge, Jintao Guo and Siyu Sun
access the excluded stomach with deployment of a LAMS over a wire to create a gastrogastric or jejunogastric fistula, which allowed passage of the duodenoscope through the LAMS and performance of conventional ERCP. [ 75 ] Jah et al . [ 76 ] have reported EUS-guided drainage of an abdominalfluid collection following a Whipple procedure using an Olympus GF-UCT240 EUS endoscope (GF-UCT240, Olympus, UK), which was passed through the gastrojejunostomy. The serosanguinous collection was completely aspirated using a 19-gauge Echotip-Ultra needle (Wilson-Cook, Ireland
Masayuki Akatsuka, Hiroomi Tatsumi, Naoya Yama and Yoshiki Masuda
extremely difficult to treat [ 1 ], and the mortality rate is reportedly high [ 2 ]. In an animal sepsis model of intra-abdominal infection, intra-abdominalfluid contained larger amounts of cytokines than seen in circulating blood [ 8 ]. These cytokines are continuously transferred into circulating blood, causing damage to the vascular endothelium of internal organs. In the lungs, this increases vascular permeability, increasing the volume of interstitial fluid and causing the appearance of diffuse infiltration on CT [ 9 ]. In particular, if vascular permeability
Mohamed Shirazy, Islam Omar, Duaa Abduljabbar, Kamel Bousselmi, Maryam Alkhaja, Anis Chaari, Vipin Kauts and Karim Hakim
, instruments used, and measurements
Data collected included demographic data (age, sex), comorbidities, source of sepsis, sodium levels on days one, three, and seven.
The source of sepsis was confirmed via a routine sepsis workup that included radiological evidence, culture and sensitivity of blood, sputum, and urine, abdominalfluid drain culture, tissue culture, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and cultures for suspected cases.
Various variables including demographic data, comorbidities, source of sepsis, and sodium levels on days 1, 3, and 7 were assessed
Nonthikorn Theerasuwipakorn, Abbas Ali Tasneem, Pradermchai Kongkam, Phontep Angsuwatcharakon, Wiriyaporn Ridtitid, Patpong Navicharern, Krit Kitisin, Peerapol Wangrattanapranee, Rungsun Rerknimitr and Pinit Kullavanijaya
loss, or may be found incidentally by imaging performed in otherwise asymptomatic patients. The examination findings may include abdominal tenderness, palpable mass, and abdominalfluid collection. [ 5 ] There are various therapeutic strategies that can be employed in patients with pseudocyst and WON. In patients with mild symptoms, conservative management can be employed with good clinical outcome. [ 7 ] On the other hand, patients with severe symptoms resulting from pseudocyst and WON including infection and gastric outlet obstruction may require additional