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Violence, Faith, and Women in Romanian Literature

Abstract

This essay offers a gendered reading of the confluence of violence and faith in Romanian literature, through a reading of two texts: Tatiana Bran’s “Deadly Confession”, and Elie Wiesel’s “Night”. While the former looks at the violence visited upon women in the context of religion and faith, the latter seeks to locate the place of women in the course of the loss of faith in a male context. The essay embeds these readings within the larger context of women and violence in Romanian literature from the 19th century to the present. While the instance of Bran’s novel serves as representative of much of this literature, the example of Wiesel’s autobiographical narrative is uniquely contextualized by the field of Holocaust literature. Nevertheless, it is possible to see these two readings – one, a woman authored text of violence against women, the other, a male authored text of women as a refuge from violence – as complementing each other in the ways in which women respond to faith and the loss of faith.

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Evolutionary psychology, economic freedom, trade and benevolence

Abstract

Our thesis is that the reason many of us today are inclined toward socialism (explicit cooperation) and against laissez-faire capitalism (implicit cooperation) is because the first type of behavior was much more genetically beneficial during previous generations of our species. There is, however, a seemingly strong argument against this hypothesis: evidence from human prehistory indicates that trade (implicit cooperation) previously was widespread. How, then, can we be hard-wired in favor of socialism and against capitalism if our ancestors were engaged in market behavior in past millennia? Although trade which is self-centered and beneficial (presumably mutually beneficial to all parties in the exchange) did indeed appear hundreds of thousands of years ago, benevolence was established in our hard-wiring very substantially earlier, literally hundreds of millions of years ago, and is therefore far more deeply integrated into the human psyche.

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Job Satisfaction and Satisfaction with Work-Life Balance across Cultures

Abstract

Objective: To determine the extent of and the relationship between Job Satisfaction (JS) and Work-Life Balance (WLB) across cultures.

Methodology: European Social Survey (ESS) data 2012 were used to answer the research questions put forth. To organize and make meaning of the data, both descriptive and inferential statistics have been used. Mean scores and standard deviations of job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB) were computed for all the 29 countries. Correlation analysis was used to discern and test for the correlations among the variables of interest. Independent samples t-test was used to compare countries with high power distance and those with low power distance on job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB).

Findings: Mean scores of job satisfaction and satisfaction with WLB and correlation coefficients between the two varied across the countries under study as expected. Mean scores of job satisfaction ranged from 6.53 in Ukraine to 8.20 in Denmark. Similarly, mean scores of satisfaction with WLB varied from 6.08 in Russia to 7.65 in Denmark. Pearson’s coefficients of correlation between job satisfaction and satisfaction with WLB varied from .301 in Finland to .667 in Ukraine. Of the six dimensions of culture, only power distance had moderate inverse relationships with both job satisfaction and satisfaction with WLB. Furthermore, as a group, countries with low power distance (PD) had significantly higher job satisfaction than countries with high power distance.

Value Added: The study highlighted the relevance and importance of job satisfaction and satisfaction with WLB in organizations. It also showed the universality and culture-specificity of job satisfaction and satisfaction with WLB.

Recommendations: Managers need to pay attention to enhancing employees’ job satisfaction and satisfaction with WLB to ensure organizational effectiveness regardless of organizational context. Managers also need to employ culturally appropriate managerial strategies in promoting job satisfaction and satisfaction with LWB.

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Income Elasticity of Culture Expenses in Polish Provinces

Abstract

Decentralisation of public finance in Poland was an important element of changes in the political system of the country. As a result, some tasks of the state were transferred to the local government level. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the budget expenses on cultural tasks incurred by local government units in Poland in the years 2003–2012 and outlines the legal frameworks of the local government financial management in Poland. Using a model based on the double logarithmic function, the author tests a hypothesis, according to which the broadly understood culture might be regarded as a necessity or luxury good, depending on the value of the coefficient of elasticity of the expenses on culture incurred by local government units in relation to the gross regional product.

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Cultural Leadership and Entrepreneurship As Antecedents of Estonia’s Singing Revolution and Post-Communist Success

Abstract

The Baltic people of Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia gained recognition with their successful use of a cultural tool, singing folkloric songs, to protest collectively against their common Soviet oppressor in the summer of 1988, preceding the collapse of the Soviet Union. Rational-choice theorists have argued that large rebellious movements are paradoxical because the larger the number of potential revolutionaries, the greater the leadership, participation, and coordination problems they face (Olson, 1971; Tullock, 1974). This paper investigates Estonia’s Singing Revolution and illustrates how ethnic Estonians used their shared cultural beliefs and singing traditions as a tacit, informal institutional solution to overcome the collective-action problems with organizing and participating in mass singing protests against the Soviet regime. The paper goes further to extend the standard rational-choice framework and to include a more dynamic, entrepreneurial-institutional perspective on socio-cultural change by accounting for the role of cultural leaders as cultural entrepreneurs, a subset of institutional entrepreneurs. The success of Estonia’s Singing Revolution can be ultimately attributed to leadership in the form of cultural entrepreneurship going back to pre-Soviet Estonian times. The revived legacy of ancient shared beliefs, folkloric practices, and singing tradition represented the necessary social capital for the Estonian people to voice collectively shared preferences for political and economic governance during a window of constitutional opportunity. Mikhail Gorbachev’s Glasnost, a policy aimed to improve Soviet formal institutions by fostering freedom of speech and political transparency, also provided a context propitious for the Singing Revolution because it lowered the perceived costs of participation in the rebellious singing and opened a window of opportunity for political change.

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Some properties of multivalent analytic functions associated with an integral operator

Abstract

Let A(p) denote the class of functions of the form f(z) = zp Σ k=1+p akzk (p ∈ N = {1, 2, 3,...}) which are analytic in the open unit disk U = {z : z ∈ C and |z| < 1} By making use of the Noor integral operator, we obtain some interesting properties of multivalent analytic functions.

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Bounds on the Third Order Hankel Determinant for Certain Subclasses of Analytic Functions

Abstract

Let A be the class of analytic functions f(z) in the unit disc ∆ = {z ∈ C : |z| < 1g with the Taylor series expansion about the origin given by f(z) = z+ ∑n=2 anzn, z ∈∆ : The focus of this paper is on deriving upper bounds for the third order Hankel determinant H3(1) for two new subclasses of A.

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Study on subclasses of analytic functions

Abstract

By making use of new linear fractional differential operator, we introduce and study certain subclasses of analytic functions associated with Symmetric Conjugate Points and defined in the open unit disk 𝕌 = {z : |z| < 1}. Inclusion relationships are established and convolution properties of functions in these subclasses are discussed.

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Growth of polynomials with prescribed zeros - II

Abstract

In this paper we consider a class of polynomials p(z) = , 1 ≤ μ ≤ n, having all its zeros on |z| = k, k ≤ 1. Using the notation M(p; t) = , we measure the growth of p by estimating from above for any t ≥ 1, s being an arbitrary positive integer.

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Properties on a subclass of univalent functions defined by using a multiplier transformation and Ruscheweyh derivative

Abstract

In this paper we have introduced and studied the subclass ℛ𝒥 (d, α, β) of univalent functions defined by the linear operator RIn,λ,lγf(z) defined by using the Ruscheweyh derivative Rnf(z) and multiplier transformation I (n, λ, l) f(z), as RIn,λ,lγ:𝒜𝒜, RIn,λ,lγf(z)=(1γ)Rnf(z)+γI(n,λ,l)f(z), zU, where 𝒜n ={f ∈ ℋ(U) : f(z) = z + an +1 zn +1 + . . . , zU}is the class of normalized analytic functions with 𝒜1 = 𝒜. The main object is to investigate several properties such as coefficient estimates, distortion theorems, closure theorems, neighborhoods and the radii of starlikeness, convexity and close-to-convexity of functions belonging to the class ℛ𝒥(d, α, β).

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