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Abstract

Vegetative progeny were obtained from 46 elms (Ulmus glabra Huds.) by grafting. These grafted trees were planted in 2009 in a clone archive in forest plot 264j in the Bielsk Forest District.

After one year of growth, elm clone survival ranged from 38% to 100% (89% on average). Although all clones were of similar age and were grown under similar conditions, their average height was highly variable and ranged from 99.0 cm (clone no. 9473z) to 186.6 cm (clone no. 9645z), while average root collar diameter ranged from 8.4 mm (clone no. 9473z) to 18.0 mm (clone no. 9645z).

There were large differences crown architectural among the different clones, and variation in average shape of the crown was high (from 2.6 in clone no. 9655 to 3.8 in clone no. 9446z).

Index breeding values determined on the standardized data for height, root collar diameter, crown shape and survival, ranged from -0.71 (clone no. 9473z) to 0.61 (clone no. 9645z). Clones from Czerwony Dwór reached a better breeding value (0.17) than clones from Gołdap (-0.0266), and variation in their average breeding values was high (0.197).

ABSTRACT

.The body size of xylophagous beetles is determined by the host plant species, as well as by the amount and quality of breeding material. Consequently, the biometric traits of adults can be used as an indicator of the attractiveness of the breeding material and the quality of a habitat. The paper presents selected biometric traits of rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (L.) imagines in three populations from the Beskid Niski Mts (Carpathian Mts, south-eastern Poland). Two populations of this beetle from managed forests and one from a protected area in the Magura National Park were compared. The former developed on two different host plants (European beech Fagus sylvatica and wych elm Ulmus glabra), the latter on European beech. No significant differences were found between the biometric traits of imagines from the three populations. No intersexual differences were found for the width of the pronotum in any of the populations, but females had longer elytra than males in all the populations. The lack of body size differences in these populations potentially indicates that this species occurs only in favourable habitat conditions. The limited species range and the patchy distribution of the rosalia longicorn are indications of its stringent habitat requirements and its dependence on forest management. Habitats supplying a sufficient amount and quality of suitable breeding material for the development of the rosalia longicorn should be protected.

Abstract

The Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina is regarded as a primeval forest relict and occurs mainly in old beech woodland in mountain areas. This paper describes a locality of the species in a copse surrounded by pastures, lying in open farmland situated at some distance from woodlands. The larval host plant was Wych Elm Ulmus glabra. The trees at this locality were dying from Dutch elm disease, which is caused by the fungus Ophiostoma sp. It is demonstrated that under favourable circumstances R. alpina can also colonise copses in pastureland, a hitherto unknown habitat for this species. At the same time this newly discovered locality may signify a change in the species’ habitat preferences. R. alpina is under threat, however, from the possible felling of the dead trees by the landowner; conservation measures should therefore include

a mechanism for financial compensation in return for not cutting the trees down. This work has shown that copses may be used by endangered saproxylic species. The discovery of a R. alpina locality in a pastureland copse gives an indication of the importance of pockets of unmanaged habitat in the farming landscape, which could be contributing to the preservation of populations of rare species.

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