Özgür Didrickson, Jno Didrickson and Przemysław Busse
Hedenström A., Alerstam T. 1997. Optimum fuel loads in migratory birds: distinguishing between time and energy minimization. J. Theor. Biol. 189 : 227-234.
Hedenström A., Pettersson J. 1987. Migration routes and wintering areas of WillowWarblers Phylloscopus trochilus (L.) ringed in Fennoscandia. Ornis Fenn. 64 : 135-143.
Ilieva M., Zehtindjiev P. 2005. Migratory state: body mass and fat level of some passerine long-distance migrants during autumn migration in north-eastern Bulgaria. Ring 27 , 1: 61
Boris Droz, Sabrina Joye, Alexandre de Titta, Fabian Schneider and Sylvain Antoniazza
of seasonal migrations. Branta 8: 133-159. (in Russian).
Didrickson Ö.K., Didrickson J.,Busse P. 2007. Autumn migration dynamics, body mass, fat load and stopover behaviour of the WillowWarbler Phylloscopus trochilus at Manyas Kusçenneti National Park (NW Turkey). Ring 29: 67-89.
Fiedler W. 1998. Trends in ringing numbers of Redstarts (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) and Wrynecks (Jynx torquilla) in Southern Germany. Die Vogelwarte 39: 233-241. (in German).
Ginn H. B., Melville D. S. (eds). 1983. Moult in birds British
A New Species of the Genus Trouessartia (Analgoidea, Trouessartiidae) from Ukraine
Trouessartia phylloscopi sp. n. from Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Passeriformes) (type locality: Zmeinij Island, Ukraine) is described. The new species is morphologically similar to T. microcaudata Mironov, 1983 from Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, 1758.
Avifaunistic Commission. 2006. Rare birds recorded in Poland in 2005. Not. Orn. 47, 2: 97-124.
Bensch S., Åkesson S., Irwin D. E. 2002. The use of AFLP to find an informative SNP: genetic differences across a migratory divide in willowwarblers. Mol. Ecol. 11: 2359-2366.
Bensch S., Andersson T., Åkesson S. 1999. Morphological and molecular variation across a migratory divide in willowwarblers, Phylloscopus trochilus. Evolution 53: 1925
Stopover Ecology of Some Passerines at Ankara (Central Turkey)
In autumn 2002 we studied little known passerine migration at a woodland patch within the Middle East Technical University (METU) campus in Ankara (Turkey). A total of 954 individuals of 35 passerine species were mist-netted, ringed, measured, weighed and fat-scored (after Busse 2000). Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) and Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) were the two most common species, with 308 and 145 individuals caught, respectively. Both are passage migrants at METU, recorded from mid-August to late October, representing several waves.
Only 11.5% of Blackcaps had the fat score of T6 and above, and among 20 retraps only 2 gained fat significantly. All the other retraps lost fat, stayed the same, or increased 1-2 scores at most. In contrast, Willow Warblers, as true trans-Saharan migrants, had the much higher proportion (46%) of individuals with fat scores of T6 and above. Most retrapped individuals gained fat, some with already high levels stayed the same, while none lost fat. We interpret these data in terms of known migratory ranges, diet types and habitat patch quality.
Although daily catches were low, a diverse range of species used METU as a stopover site. Fat deposition rates (of up to 50% of body weight within a week) suggest that the study site provided a high quality stopover habitat for most migrants. In Central Turkey, such suitable habitats with trees or tall shrubs are scarce, and therefore, crucial for migrants.
Zaniewicz G. 2012. Comparability of wing length measurements based on data collected attwo twin stations during migration. Ring 34: 37-43.
Data collected during bird migration include measurements taken during ringing. The variety and quality of information, which these measurements can potentially provide, depend strongly on their accuracy and comparability.
The analysis of the comparability was made based on the measurements of wing length taken by different ringers during autumn migratory seasons at the southern Baltic coast. An experiment was run with the measurements taken from six passerine species during several (from 8 to 10, depending on the species) migratory seasons at two twin sites belonging to Mierzeja Wioelana station. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate how strongly the habits of different measurers influence the measurements taken. The results of this experiment show that correlations between the measurements collected at these two sites are strong and statistically significant for the Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla), Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin), Robin (Erithacus rubecula) and Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos). However, for the Goldcrest (Regulus regulus) and Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) the relations were not significant. The last species allow to consider other causes, independent from human factor, which are possibly responsible for the average wing length local variability. In such species, we still need to look closer at the potential sources of their differentiation, such as the preferences of habitat selection between sexes, populations, etc.
Migratory state: body mass and fat level of some passerine long-distance migrants during autumn migration in north-eastern Bulgaria
Body condition of 3224 migrating birds of Great Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), Sedge Warbler (A. schoenobaenus), Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus), Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) and Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) was studied at Kalimok Station, NE Bulgaria (41°00'N 26°26'E) in the autumns of 1997-2003. The mean values of the fat level and the body mass were calculated for each species and year and were compared with similar data of various parts of the Palaearctic-African Migration System. Distinct variations in the mean values of studied parameters in different years were recorded. The dynamics of the accumulated subcutaneous fat and the body mass during the autumn varied in different species and either increase or decrease of the values during a certain season were registered. Age-determined differences in the studied characteristics were found. The timing of the passage of the first-year and adult birds can influence the dynamics of the mean fat level and the mean body mass. The lack of selective environment in NE Balkan Peninsula allows the passage of conspecific birds in various migratory states. The realisation of their migration adaptations highly depends on environmental conditions during the period of passage.
In Poland, forests comprise 31% of the total surface area, while the lowland coniferous forests comprise 51% of 94 000 km2 afforested areas. The line transect method was employed in 2002 and 2004 to estimate population densities and dominance of all bird species breeding in a selected fragment of such forest (eight transects with 165 sections and 77.7 km in total length). In total, 54 breeding bird species were recorded. The numbers varied between 37 and 44 on the particular transect. The number of breeding pairs per 10 ha varied on each transect from 41.0 to 93.6 (x=64.8; SD=102.22). Shannon’s diversity index varied between 1.2 and 1.4 on particular transects, while Simpson’s diversity index varied between 0.7 and 0.9. Also Pieleau’s evenness index varied slightly between 0.05 and 0.07. In overall, the differences between densities of breeding species on 8 transects were not statistically significant. The Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs was by far the most numerous bird species, recorded as eudominant in all eight transects and present in all 165 sections. The second to the Chaffinch was the Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita; also recorded in all sections and as a dominant in all transects. Three other species, namely the Blackbird Turdus merula, Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus and Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla were recorded each one in more than 90% sections (N=165), and on particular transects their dominance varied between 4 and 11%. Residents comprised 57.5% of all breeding pairs. Short-distance migrants were almost twice more common than long-distance migrants. Insectivores were by far the most numerous feeding guild represented 88.9% of all breeding pairs. Overall density, cumulative dominance, diversity and evenness were unexpectedly very similar in this study (managed forest) and in natural primeval lowland coniferous forests of Białowieża.
This paper focuses on field practice using different types of orientation cages. The two orientation cage designs most commonly used in field work, i.e. Emlen’s funnel and Busse’s flat orientation cage, are described in detail and compared for compatibility of results, simplicity of use and time effectiveness. Apart from cage designs and field procedures (60-min nocturnal tests in Emlen’s funnel vs. 10-min diurnal tests according to Busse’s procedure), the standard data evaluation procedures are compared and discussed. The data used in the discussion were collected for four species of nocturnal migrants (the Reed Warbler, the Sedge Warbler, the Willow Warbler and the Whitethroat) at the Kalimok Bird Station (Bulgaria): altogether 141 individuals were tested in Emlen’s funnel in 2001 and 788 in Busse’s cage in 2001-2007.
The following conclusions were drawn: (1) Busse’s flat cage design and its standard procedures yield results fully compatible with those obtained using Emlen’s funnel and the associated procedures; this means full compatibility in terms of the directionality of tested birds in the diurnal and nocturnal tests; (2) the procedures compared have distinct differences in terms of constraints on the methods:
– Emlen’s cage is extremely stressful for the bird and should be avoided as much as possible in practice due to animal welfare concerns;
– Emlen’s standard procedure of testing the bird for 60 minutes is completely useless, as this is inefficient in terms of quality of results and causes more stress to the bird than is necessary;
– Busse’s 10-minute standard makes it possible to collect a vast amount of data (12 birds per hour and person) in real field work, even performed in wilderness areas;
(3) At the stage of evaluation of raw data it is essential to use evaluation tools which take into account the fact that raw data items show a high percentage of multimodal distributions, and therefore tools assuming unimodal distribution are unsuitable.
Busse P. 2018. Estimation of local heading patterns of nocturnal Migrants using orientation cages. Ring 40: 31-58
The main aim of this paper is to compare the results of two data evaluation procedures used for presenting the data from the orientation cage field tests. Both procedures accept multimodality of the data and multimodality of the headings of an individual bird as well as migrating population. The goal is to reach acceptable level of migration patterns presentation in biological sense, taking under consideration a flexibility of the real movements, depending on specific weather and landscape parameters. Such knowledge is absolutely necessary for estimating migration bottle-necks and the long-term studies on influence of the climate changes on migration patterns. The material used for the comparison of the procedures was collected in years 2001-2007 by the team of the Bulgarian Ringing Station Kalimok (44°00’N, 26°26’E) within the frame of the SEEN (SE European Bird Migration Network) activity and kindly shared for evaluation. The data were obtained using the standard SEEN methods, with the standard Busse’s cage working procedure of the field tests. The material contains data on four species of nocturnal migrants living in different habitats: the Great Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus (ACR.ARU), the Sedge Warbler, A. schoenobaenus (ACR.ENO), the Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus (PHY.LUS) and the Whitethroat, Sylvia communis (SYL.COM). There are confirmed earlier conclusions that so called „classic” unimodal procedure is not applicable to the orientation cage data resulted from any field procedure. There are available two evaluation procedures that base on the same general assumptions: multimodality of distributions that reflects combination of several unimodal partial distributions, that can be described both using sophisticated Bayesian „Calculation” method and much simpler „Estimation” procedure. Results of both procedures are enough close to each other that they can be used for describing local and general heading patterns of migration of the nocturnal migratory movements studied using orientation cages.