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Wroth and Figurations of Gender in Early Modern England. Lexington: The UP of Kentucky, 1996. Morton, Mark. The Lover's Tongue: A Merry Romp Through the Language of Love and Sex. Toronto: Insomniac P, 2003. “Neat.” Online Etymology Dictionary, 2016. Web. 30 July 2017. Newmark, Peter. A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice Hall International, 1998. Partridge, Eric. Shakespeare’s Bawdy. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge, 2011. Potter, Lois. The Life of William Shakespeare: A Critical Biography. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. “Pun.” Def. 1

“What causes interest?” is definitely profound. One could easily give theoretical answers, stating “this should arouse their interest.” Unfortunately, most of the time this “should” does not match the reality of the stage, so we finally settle for “this should have aroused their interest, but…” Key words: William Shakespeare, Hamlet, text analysis. The artist always represents both the world and himself. Shakespeare is the greatest magician of dramatic counterpoints; what he presents is not merely the simple rhythm of a single event, but the entirety of

Bibliography William Shakespeare, Hamlet , translation by Leon Levițchi and Dan Duțescu, in Complete Works , a book prepared and comments by Leon Levițchi, Bucharest, Editura Univers, 1986 Studies Banu, George, Scena modernă. Miniaturi și mitologii ( The Modern Stage. Miniatures and Mythologies ), translation by Vlad Russo, Bucharest, Editura Nemira, 2014 Barthes, Roland, Littérature et signification , Essais critiques , Paris, Seuil/Points, 1981 Cărtărescu, Mircea, Postmodernismul românesc (Romanian Postmodernism) , Bucharest, Editura Humanitas, 1999

de stripe aleasă. Nevestele vesele din Windsor, Opere . Vol. III. Bucharest: Paralela 45, 2010. Print. Shakespeare, William. Îmblânzirea scorpiei. Regele Ioan. Vis de-o noapte-n miezul verii , Opere . Vol. IV. Bucharest: Paralela 45, 2011. Print. The Red Shoes . Dir. Michael Powell, Emeric Pressburger. Perf. Anton Walbrook, Marius Goring and Moira Shearer. Independent, 1948. Film. “ The Taming of the Shrew by William Shakespeare . ” East River Commedia: Panem et Circem . Web. 10 April 2010.

References Howard, J. 1988. “Crossdressing, the Theater, and Gender Struggle in Early Modern England” in Shakespeare Quarterly 39, pp.418-40. Jenkins Logan, T. 1982. Twelfth Night: The Limits of Festivity. Studies in EnglishLiterature, 1500-1900 , Vol. 22, Nr.2, Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama , Spring 982, pp.223-238. Kott, J. 1974. Shakespeare Our Contemporary . New York: W. W. Norton & Company. Shakespeare, W. 1993. Twelfth Night in The Complete Works of William Shakespeare . London: Ramboro Books. http

, 44–54. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wells, Stanley, Gary Taylor, John Jowett and William Montgomery. 1987. William Shakespeare: A textual companion. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Westfall, Suzanne. 2002. “What revels are in hand?” Performances in the great households. In A.F. Kinney (ed.). A companion to Renaissance drama , 266–280. Oxford/Malden: Blackwell.

. Film. Shakespeare, William. 1999. Romeo and Juliet in The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. Oxford: Wordsworth Editions. Solanas, Juan (Dir.). 2012. Upside Down. Upside Down Films, Les Films Upside Down, Onyx Films. Film. Sontag, Susan. 1977. “Theater and Film”. Film and Literature: An Introduction and Reader. John Harrington (Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp. 76-92. Spencer, T.J.B. (Ed.). 1967. Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. London: Penguin Books. Zeffirelli, Franco (Dir.). 1968. Romeo and Juliet. BHE Films, Verona Produzione, Dino de Laurentis

Midsummer Night’s Dream” in The Complete Works of William Shakespeare . Ware-Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd. Shakespeare, William. 1996 (1623). “As You Like It” in The Complete Works of William Shakespeare . Ware-Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd. Shakespeare, William. 1996 (1597). “Romeo and Juliet” in The Complete Works of William Shakespeare . Ware-Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd. Shakespeare, William. 1996 (1611). “The Tempest” in The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. Ware-Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd. Zelinka, Elisabeta. 2016


Influenced by the Humanist movement, Shakespeare is preoccupied with time, illustrating it in his lyrics and dramaturgy. If in comedies time has a regenerative character, in the Shakespearean tragedies “the clock” ticks continuously, it is the soundtrack that fulfills the destiny of the character. And Macbeth is perhaps the best example in this respect. Macbeth is hypnotized and haunted by time. Hypnotized by the imagination of a possible future and haunted by a past full of blood and crimes. The hero lives between imagination and memory, and the main catalyst of the play is the tragic interaction between Macbeth and time, with all the psychological and physical tensions that derive from there. The main impact of time on Shakespeare’s tragic heroes is achieved by the actual actions of time that exposes and amplifies tragic defects of heroes (in Macbeth’s case - ambition). As in the Renaissance, myths, images and signs were used in poetics and literature to indicate a teaching, a moral, Shakespeare includes in his work symbols taken from the iconography and mythography available at that time, such as time’s tricephalous image around which Macbeth is “shaped”.

References Newdigate, Bernard H. & Bette Davis (eds.). 1947. The works of William Shakespeare gathered into one volume. London: The Shakespeare Head Press Odhams Press Ltd. and Basil Blackwell. Crane, Gregory R. (ed.). The works of Christopher Marlowe. Perseus Collection. Perseus Digital Library Project. Tufts University. 31.07.2011 <> Abbott, Edwin A. 1966. Shakespearian grammar. An attempt to illustrate some of the differences between Elizabethan and modern English. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. Blake, Norman Francis. 2002. A