This paper is a commentary on Joseph Corabi’s “The Misuse and Failure of the Evolutionary Argument”, this Journal, vol. VI, No. 39; pp. 199-227. It defends William James’s formulation of the evolutionary argument against charges such as mishandling of evidence. Although there are ways of attacking James’s argument, it remains formidable, and Corabi’s suggested revision is not an improvement on James’s statement of it.
The evolutionary argument is an argument against epiphenomenalism, designed to show that some mind-body theory that allows for the efficacy of qualia is true. First developed by Herbert Spencer and William James, the argument has gone through numerous incarnations and it has been criticized in a number of different ways. Yet many have found the criticisms of the argument in the literature unconvincing. Bearing this in mind, I examine two primary issues: first, whether the alleged insights employed in traditional versions of the argument have been correctly and consistently applied, and second, whether the alleged insights can withstand critical scrutiny. With respect to the first issue, I conclude that the proponents of the argument have tended to grossly oversimplify the considerations involved, incorrectly supposing that the evolutionary argument is properly conceived as a non-specific argument for the disjunction of physicalism and interactionist dualism and against epiphenomenalism. With respect to the second issue, I offer a new criticism that decisively refutes all arguments along the lines of the one I present. Finally, I draw positive lessons about the use of empirical considerations in debates over the mind-body problem.
Papers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Russill, Chris (2004) Toward a Pragmatist Theory of Communication. PhD Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University. Russill, Chris (2005a) ‘“Now Back to Pragmatism…”: Thinking about Publics with Bruno Latour’, The Communication Review 8, 265-276. Russill, Chris (2005b) ‘The Road not Taken: WilliamJames’s Radical Empiricism and Communication Theory’, The Communication Review 8, 277-305. Russill, Chris (2006) ‘For a Pragmatist Perspective on Publics: Advancing Carey’s Cultural Studies through John Dewey … and Michel Foucault
Court has conceptualized truth in freedom-of-expression cases, and then draws on the results of that analysis, as well as pragmatic approaches to philosophy, the so called “pragmatic method” put forth by American philosopher WilliamJames, W ILLIAM J AMES , P RAGMATISM 28-29 (1978). to propose a unifying conceptualization of truth that could be employed to help the Court provide consistency within its precedents regarding the meaning of a concept that has been central to the Court’s interpretation of the First Amendment since, in many ways, another pragmatist and
The purpose of the work was to evaluate the Fe-chelating activity of freeze drying assisted ultrasonicated hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Conocarpus lancifolius Engl. along with 1H-NMR based classification of metabolites in most active extract. The finding revealed that 60% ethanolic extract was the most active fraction regarding Fe-chelating activity with value of 75.4 ± 0.6% followed by 80% ethanolic extract having chelating value of 69.24±1.02%. The least Fe-chelating activity was exhibited by aqueous extract. The statistical analysis revealed that the Fe-chelating activity by 60% ethanolic extract was significantly higher than other fractions except EDTA which was used as standard chelating agent. The 1HNMR technique predicted the presence of aromatic secondary metabolites of polyphenolic origin due to numerous peaks in respective regions. The peaks in carbohydrate and organic acid regions were also observed. The research outcomes suggested that C. lancifolius may be workable choice to move further for the development of cure and management practices for iron load based oxidative stress oriented diseases including diabetes mellitus type II.
Particularly in the latter half of the nineteenth century sensorial experiences changed at breakneck speed. Social and technological developments of modernity like the industrial revolution, rapid urban expansion, the advance of capitalism and the invention of new technologies transformed the field of the senses. Instead of attentiveness, distraction became prevalent. It is not only Baudelaire who addressed these transformations in his poems, but they can also be recognized in the works of novelist Gustave Flaubert and painter Edward Munch. By means of the work of William James, Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer and Georg Simmel, the repercussions of this crisis of the senses for subjectivity will be discussed.
R eferences 1. Aaker, A. David (1996), Building strong brands. New York: The Free Press. 2. Belk, W. Russell (1988), “Possessions and the Extended Self”, Journal of Consumer Research , Vol.15, Issue 2, 139-168. 3. Goffman, Erving (1961), Asylums, New York: Doubleday. 4. James, W., Burkhardt, F., Bowers, F., & Skrupskelis, I. K. (1890), The principles of psychology (Vol. 1, No. 2). London: Macmillan in Heft, H. (2001). Ecological psychology in context: James Gibson, Roger Barker, and the legacy of WilliamJames's radical empiricism. Psychology Press, pp. 291
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