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. 199-212. LITTLE, Kenneth (1965): The Political Function of the Poro. Part 1. In Journal of the International African Institute , Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 340-365. LITTLE, Kenneth (1966): The Political Function of the Poro. Part 2. In Journal of the International African Institute , Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 62-72. LUCAS, HENRY S. (1930): The Great European Famine of 1315, 1316, and 1317. In Speculum. A Journal of Medieval Studies 1930, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 343-377. LAW, ROBIN (1985): Human Sacrifice in Pre-Colonial West Africa. In African Affairs , Vol. 84, No. 334, pp. 53


Ecotourism, understood as a form of leisure conforming with the principles of environmental protection and promoting its natural and cultural values, is dynamically developing in almost all parts of the world. Properly carried out, ecotourism projects may be an essential instrument of regional development. Problems of ecotourism development in four areas of West Africa, i.e. the Comoé National Park (Ivory Coast), the Dogon Country (Mali), the northern Dallol Boss Region and Kouré (Niger), and the Äir and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Niger) are discussed in the article.

A common characteristic of the chosen areas are their significant natural and cultural values and the occurrence of tourist activeness allowing to qualify them as ecotouristic sites. The analysis of both external and internal success factors in ecotourism leads to the conclusion that, in the discussed regions, ecotourism development is a positive phenomenon. It should, however, be accompanied by continuous supervision of environmental conditions and ecological education of the local population.

Bibliography ARMSTRONG, Robert G. (1978): The development of Fulani studies: A linguist’s view. In Struktur und Wandel afrikanischer Sprachen (Marburger Studies zur Afrika- und Asienkunde: Bd. 17), hrsg von H. Jungraithmayr. Berlin. Dietrich Reimer Verlag, pp.190. BALDI, Sergio (2015): Proverbs as an educational factor in Hausa society. In Gianclaudio Batic, Sergio Baldi (eds.): Actes of Symposium on West African Languages (SyWAL2014, Naples, 27-28 March 2014). Naples: University of Naples L’Orientale: Department of Asian, African and Mediterranean Studies

References A rslan , A., Z ima , J., K oubínová , D., Y orulmaz , T., T oyran , K., G özütok , S., 2013. Karyotypes of three gerbil species of the genera Tatera and Gerbilliscus from Turkey and Senegal. North-Western Journal of Zoology , 9: 57–62. B â , K., K ane , M., G authier , P., G ranjon , L., 2013. Ecology of a typical West African Sudanian savannah rodent community. African Journal of Ecol ogy, 51: 447–455. C hidumayo , E.N., 1980. Population ecology of Tatera leucogaster (Rodentia) in southern Zambia. Journal of Zoology , 190 (3): 44–49. C hoate , T

REFERENCES Arie S. (2014): Only the military can get the Ebola epidemic under control: MSF head. BMJ: British Medical Journal 349: g6151. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g6151 Brookings Institution (2014): Understanding the economic effects of the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Africa in Focus. Retrieved from Dobsonova M. (2009): Diseases; stories from the most serious killers during the history. Praha: Slovart, s.r.o., 256 p. (in Czech). FAO (2014a): Ebola leaves hundreds of thousands facing hunger in three worst-hit countries. Rome: FAO

): Genetic locus encoding functions involved in biosynthesis and outer membrane localization of xanthomonadin in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae . Journal of Bacteriology, 184, 3539–3548. doi: 10.1128/JB.184.13.3539-3548.2002. Gonzalez C, Szurek B, Manceau C, Mathieu T, Sere Y, Verdier V (2007): Molecular and pathotypic characterization of new Xanthomonas oryzae strains from West Africa. Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions, 20, 534–546. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-20-5-0534. Gurlebeck D, Thieme F, Bonas U (2006): Type III effector proteins from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas and

and brackish water fishes of West Africa Volume 2. Coll. faune et flore tropicales 40. Institut de recherche de développement, Paris, France, Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris, France and Musée royal de l’Afrique Central, Tervuren, Belgium. 815 pp.


Three nematode species of Cithariniella (Pharyngodonidae), C. citharini, C. khalili, and C. gonzalesi, were recorded from the recta of squeaker (Mochokidae: Siluriformes) and citharinid (Citharinidae: Characiformes) fishes from Senegal, West Africa. Morphological characteristics obtained by scanning electron microscopy (form of oral aperture and cephalic papillae, presence of lateral alae, distribution and form of cloacal papillae, simple or paired papillae on tail of males, eggs with numerous long filaments on each pole in females) correspond well to the generic diagnosis and represent species differences. The shape and size of the cephalic papillae and lips were identified as a new determination feature. C. gonzalesi is reported for the first time from Senegal and its host, Paradistichodus dimidiatus, represents a new host record. A tentative simple key for differentiating C. citharini, C. khalili, C. gonzalesi and C. petterae is provided based upon these results.

., Hotzel M. J., Weary D. M. (2014): Separation from the dam causes negative judgement bias in dairy calves. PloS ONE 9:e98429. Edgar J. L., Lowe J. C., Paul E. S., Nicol C. J. (2011): Avian maternal response to chick distress. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278: 3129–3134. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2701 Egbowon B. F., Osinowo O. A., Biobaku W. O., Dipeolu M. A. (2007): Effects of breed, age, season and week on milk secretion rate and eight hour milk yield of West African Dwarf and Red Sokoto goats. ASSET Series A, 7:13–17. FAOSTAT (2009): Food and Agricultural

Côte d’ivoire, Tome II, Les milieux lagunaires. Edition ORSTOM, Abidjan. Aliko, N. G. (2012): Peuplement ichtyologique du lac de barrage de Taboo (bassin du Bandama, Côte d’Ivoire): diversité taxonomique, structure des populations et production exploitée. PhD Dissertation, University Nangui Abrogoua (Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire). 153p. Aliko, N. G., Da Costa, K. S., Konan, K. F., Ouattara A., Gourène, G. (2010): Fish diversity along the longitudinal gradient in a man-made lake of West Africa, Taabo hydroelectric reservoir, Ivory Coast. Ribarstvo, 68, 47-60. Assi, S. R