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zmatowienia powierzchni ziarn kwarcowych frakcji piaszczystej i jej wartość interpretacyjna [Rounding and frosting analysis of quartz sand-grain surfaces and their significance for interpretations]. Przegląd Geologiczny 46, 1275-1281. Mycielska-Dowgiałło, E. & Woronko, B., 2004. The degree of aeolization of Quaternary deposits in Poland as a tool for stratigraphic interpretation. Sedimentary Geology 168, 149-163. Pisarska-Jamroży, M., 2015. Factors controlling sedimentation in the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley during the Pomeranian phase of the Weichselian glaciation

Weichselian glaciation - Nowe Dąbie pit, SW part of the Toruń Basin]. [In:] M. Pisarska- Jamroży & Z. Babiński (Eds): Plejstoceńskie środowiska sedymentacyjne Pojezierza Pomorskiego [ Pleistocene sedimentary environments of Pomeranian Lakeland ]. Wydawnictwo UKW, Bydgoszcz, 90-99. Weckwerth, P., 2010. Evolution of the Toruń Basin in the Late Weichselian. Landform Analysis 14, 57-84. Weckwerth, P., 2011. Palaeoslopes of Weichselian sandbed braided rivers in the Toruń Basin (Poland): results of palaeohydraulic analysis. Geologos 17, 227-238. Weckwerth, P., 2013


During the Pleistocene the Scandinavian ice sheet drained huge quantities of sediment-laden meltwaters. These meltwaters supplied ice-marginal valleys that formed parallel to the front of the ice sheet. Not without significance was the supply of ice-marginal valleys from extraglacial rivers in the south. Moreover, periglacial conditions during and after sedimentation in ice-marginal valleys, the morphology of valley bedrocks, and erosion of older sediments played important roles in the depositional scenarios, and in the mineralogical composition of the sediments. The mechanisms that controlled the supply and deposition in ice-marginal valleys were analysed on the basis of a Pleistocene ice-marginal valley that was supplied by northern and southern source areas in the immediate vicinity. Investigations were conducted in one of the largest ice-marginal valleys of the Polish-German lowlands, i.e., the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley, in sandurs (Drawa and Gwda) supplied sediments and waters from the north into this valley, and on extraglacial river terraces (pre-Noteć and pre-Warta rivers), formed simultaneously with the sandurs and ice-marginal valley (Pomeranian phase of Weichselian glaciation) supplied sediments and waters from the south into this valley. A much debated question is how similar, or different, depositional processes and sediments were that contributed to the formation of the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley, and whether or not it is possible to differentiate mostly rapidly aggraded sandur sediments from ice-marginal valley sediments. Another question addresses the contribution of extraglacial feeding of the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley. These matters were addressed by a wide range of analyses: sediment texture and structure, architectural elements of sediments, frequency of sedimentary successions, heavy-mineral analysis (both transparent and opaque heavy minerals), analysis of rounding and frosting of quartz grains, and palaeohydrological calculations. Additionally, a statistical analysis was used. The specific depositional conditions of distribution of sediments in ice-marginal valley allow to distinguish new environment of ice-marginal valley braided river. The spectrum of depositional conditions in the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley and their specific palaeohydraulic parameters allow to distinguish three coexisting zones in the ice-marginal valley braided-river system: (1) deep gravel-bed braided channel zone with extensive scours, (2) deep sand-bed braided channel zone with transverse bars, and (3) marginal sand-bed and gravel-bed braided channel zone with diamicton and breccia deposition, which were characterised in detail. Some of the results have been published previously, which is why they are discussed in the present paper within the context of new data


Subsurface sediments in Poland were deposited mainly in the Pleistocene, and have varying origins and, consequently, differing geological and engineering parameters. Fluvioglacial deposits were formed during both the glacial and interglacial periods, which differed from each other in climatic conditions. Based on the results of laboratory analysis and fieldwork, till and fluvioglacial sands were compared in Central and North-Eastern Poland. The research included consistency limits, relative density, plasticity index, constrained modulus of initial compressibility and modulus of initial deformation. Despite the existing view that there exists a large diversity of geological, engineering and geotechnical parameters of variously-aged deposits in Poland, no major differences in their properties were determined at the study sites.

Is the Charlottenthal fan (marginal zone of the Pomeranian phase, NE Germany) an end moraine?

The maximum ice-sheet extent of a glaciation or glacial phase is in most cases indicated by the position of end moraines. In some cases, however, the maximum extent of the ice sheet is indicated by a fan which represents the transitional zone between the end moraine and the proximal outwash plain (sandur). Such a fan from the Pomeranian phase near Charlottenthal in NE Germany has been investigated for its lithofacies, and the depositional mechanisms of the two sedimentary environments (end moraine and outwash plain) are reconstructed. The Charlottenthal profle is not characteristic in a sedimentological sense of a typical marginal end moraine or a sandur. The deposits represent subaerial debris flows, sheet floods and channelized currents, which are typically processes for transitional fan.

Gravel samples from the till complex show typical Weichselian till compositions. These till compositions indicate a general transport direction from North to South, which is consistent with the known movement of the ice sheet during the Pomeranian phase of the Weichselian.

czwartorzędu Polski w świetle datowania radiowęglowego i luminescencyjnego. Wrocław, WIND - J. Wojewoda Publishing Co.: 87-111 (in Polish). Wysota W, 2002. Stratygrafia i środowiska sedymentacji zlodowacenia wisły w południowej części dolnego Powiśla (Stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of the Vistulian (Weichselian) glaciation in the southern part of the Lower Vistula region, middle-north Poland). Rozprawa Habilitacyjna, Wydawnictwo UMK, Toruń: 144 pp (in Polish). Wysota W, Lankauf KR, Szmańda J, Chruścińska A, Oczkowski HL and Przegiętka KR, 2002. Chronology of

reconstruct river activity during the Weichselian glaciation (Toruń Basin, Poland). Geologos 19 (this issue), 25-46. Weibel, R. & Friis, H., 2007. Alteration of opaque heavy minerals as a reflection of the geochemical conditions in depositional and diagenetic environments. [In]: M.A. Mange & D.T. Wright (Eds): Heavy minerals in use. Developments in Sedimentology (Elsevier, Amsterdam) 58, 277-303. Woo, Ming-ko & Xia, Z., 1995. Suprapermafrost groundwater seepage in gravelly terrain, Resolute, NWT, Canada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 6, 57-72. Woronko, B., 2012

Transformation from natural (thermal contraction) to anthropogenic (resource exploitation) depressions in the Krotoszyn-Koźmin-Raszków area (Polish Lowland)

An exceptional concentration of almost identical depressions exist near the small towns of Krotoszyn, Koźmin and Raszków (southern Wielkopolska). Their origin is, however, different from that of the typical post glacial-relief: they are Man-made enlarged thermal-contraction structures that developed at the very end of the Middle Polish (Warthian) glaciation and during the North Polish (Weichselian) glaciation, most probably under periglacial conditions.


Poznań, a city in central-western Poland, is located in the lowland region but has no less attractive geomorphological and human history. It was here that Poland was born at the end of the tenth century. The city’s location is connected with the meridian course of the Warta River valley. In contrast, in the northern part of the city, there is a vast area of the frontal moraines of the Poznań Phase of the Weichselian Glaciation. Against the backdrop of the geomorphological development of the city, the article presents the existing geosites, classified as urban geosites. The present geosites include three lapidaries with Scandinavian postglacial erratics, one of them also with stoneware, a fragment of a frontal push moraine and impact craters. Besides, three locations of proposed geosites with rich geomorphological and/or human history were identified. These are as follows: the peat bog located in the northern part of the city, defence ramparts as exhumed anthropogenic forms, and the Warta River valley. The existing and proposed geosites in Poznań were evaluated in three ways. In general, it should be assumed that the proposed new geosites are higher ranked than the current ones.

Palynology of Late Pleistocene varved clays from ice-dammed lakes at Lębork and Złocieniec (north-western Poland) - preliminary results

Samples collected from Late Pleistocene varved clays of the Vistulian (Weichselian) glaciation exposed at Lębork and Złocieniec (Gardno and Pomeranian phases, respectively) yielded palynological contents that are related to the different lithologies composing the varves. The dark-coloured clay units contain very small amounts of palynological material. The lighter-coloured, much thicker coarser units yielded large amounts of organic particles consisting of predominantly palynodebris of terrestrial plants, sporomorphs and aquatic palynomorphs. The latter include fresh-water and marine phytoplankton.

All particles were presumably washed out from the pre-Quaternary basement or from erratic material. This is indicated by the dinoflagellate-cyst assemblages, which represent Cretaceous and Palaeogene taxa. The large amounts of organic particles in the light-coloured layers indicate high-energy meltwaters streams, which washed them out, transported them and deposited them in ice-dammed lakes. The barren layers and those with lower amounts of organic particles were deposited during calm, presumably winter, periods, when the energy of the meltwater streams was much lower.