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, Zajíčková L, Ivan I, Macků K (2018) Attitudes and motivation to use public or individual transport: a case study of two middle-sized cities. Social Sciences 7(6): 1–25. Currie G (2010) Quantifying spatial gaps in public transport supply based on social needs. Journal of Transport Geography 18(1): 31–41. Čekal J (2006) Jihočeský kraj: regionálně geografická analýza prostorové mobility obyvatelstva. Brno: Regionální geografie a regionální rozvoj, Masarykova univerzita. Ph.D. Theses. Daniels R, Mulley C (2013) Explaining walking distance to public transport: the dominance of

(4): 1142–1152. OWEN, N., HUMPEL, N., LESLIE, E., BAUMAN, A., SALLIS, J. F. (2004): Understanding environmental influences on walking: review and research agenda. American journal of preventive medicine, 27(1): 67–76. O’SULLIVAN, S., MORRALL, J. (1996): Walking distances to and from light-rail transit stations. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1538(1): 19–26. PARTZSCH, D. (1964): Zum Begriff der Funktionsgesellschaft. Mitteilungen Des Deutschen Verbandes Für Wohnungswesen, Städtebau Und Raumplanung, 4: 3–10. PORTA, S., RENNE, J


The paper addresses the optimal bus stops allocation in the Laško municipality. The goal is to achieve a cost reduction by proper re-designing of a mandatory pupils’ transportation to their schools. The proposed heuristic optimization algorithm relies on data clustering and Monte Carlo simulation. The number of bus stops should be minimal possible that still assure a maximal service area, while keeping the minimal walking distances children have to go from their homes to the nearest bus stop. The working mechanism of the proposed algorithm is explained. The latter is driven by three-dimensional GIS data to take into account as much realistic dynamic properties of terrain as possible. The results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an optimal solution with only 37 optimal bus stops covering 94.6 % of all treated pupils despite the diversity and wideness of municipality, as well as the problematic characteristics of terrains’ elevation. The calculated bus stops will represent important guidelines to their actual physical implementation.


Background: Bike-sharing programmes have become popular in a large number of cities in order to facilitate bicycle use. Determining the location of bike sharing stations is vital to success of these programmes. Objectives: In this paper, a case study is applied to the Gaziantep University campus in order to find possible locations of the stations for users (students). The purpose is to minimize the total walking distance. Methods/Approach: Set and maximal covering mathematical models are considered to decide on coverage capability of determined 20 demand points and 20 potential bike stations. Then, the mathematical models of P-center and P-median are used to build possible stations and to allocate demand points to the opened stations. Finally, an undesirable facility location model is used to find the bike stations, which have the maximum distance from demand nodes, and to eliminate them. Results: In computational results, it is clearly seen that the proposed approaches set the potential bike station covering all demand points. They also provide different solutions for the campus planners. Conclusions: The methodology outlined in this study can provide university administrators with a useful insight into locations of stations, and in this way, it contributes significantly to future planning of bike-sharing systems.


This study investigated the effect of the officiating role on physical activity profiles of rugby league match officials during match-play. Physical performance indicators were collated from 23 match officials, resulting in 78 observations. Match officials were categorised into two groups: referees and touch judges. Microtechnology facilitated the quantification of total distance (m), relative distance (m⋅min-1), maximum velocity (m⋅s-1), the percentage of high intensity running distance (% total > 3.01 m⋅s-1), walking distance (<1 m⋅s-1), jogging distance (1.01 – 3 m⋅s-1), fast jogging distance (3.01 - 5 m⋅s-1), and sprinting distance (>5 m⋅s-1). Multivariate analysis modelled the main effect of the officiating role with follow up univariate analyses identifying significant differences. A significant effect was noted (V = 750; F(8, 66) = 24.71; p < 0.05) with referees covering a greater total distance (7767 ± 585 vs. 7022 ± 759 m), relative distance (90 ± 6 vs. 82 ± 8 m⋅min-1), jogging distance (3772 ± 752 vs. 3110 ± 553 m), and fast jogging distance (2565 ± 631 vs. 1816 ± 440 m) compared to touch judges. Touch judges covered greater distances while sprinting (1012 ± 385 vs. 654 ± 241 m). Results provide important guidance in the development of training programs for match officials.


The promotion of walking has become a global strategy in sustainable urban transportation planning. This is with the aim of reducing the urban commuter’s problems that result from the dominance of motorized urban transit, especially in developing countries with an increasing rate of urbanization. This study is carried out in Calabar, Southern Nigeria with the aim of assessing the conditions under which pedestrianism is enhanced. Research questionnaires were administered to household heads in all 22 localities with political delineation (wards) in the city. Respondents were sampled using the stratified sampling technique where every 10th residential house is sampled after the initial listing of houses. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict the conditions under which about 382 household heads (about 98% respondent rate) in Calabar could undertake utilitarian walking using factors such as motorized traffic, weather conditions, lack of safety of pedestrians and socio-economic variables as category predictors. A test of the full model against a constant single model was statistically significant, indicating that the predictors, as a set, reliably distinguished utilitarian walking and non-walking (chi square = 60.544, p < .001 with df = 17). Nagelkerke’s R2 of .232 indicated a moderately strong relationship between prediction and grouping. Prediction success overall was 70.5% (53.5% for non-walking, and 81.5% for walking). The Wald criterion demonstrated that only pedestrian conflict, lack of safety of pedestrian and the age of the pedestrian made a significant contribution to the prediction in model 1 (p = .000). Furthermore, about 99.2% of pedestrians indicated walking distances of not more than 5km while on the other hand, they can afford 0.8km to bus station, 3km to school, 5km for shopping, and about 20km for recreation trips. The study recommended counseling strategies for promoting pedestrianism among which is the development of pedestrian walkways and complementary facilities to enhance pedestrian safety and comfort.


Introduction. Obesity is a serious health and social problem. Various sources indicate that it affects approx. 20% of the world’s population. It is also counted among the diseases of affluence. Excessive body weight adversely affects a number of systems in the human body, including the locomotor system. Studies have shown that there is a close relationship between obesity and either a dysfunction or osteoarthritis of knee joints.

Aim. To evaluate the impact of weight reduction on the basic parameters of the overall capacity of obese women and their well-being.

Material and methods. 7 extremely obese women aged 28-51 looking to reduce their body weight participated in the study. The weight reduction program lasted for 12 months and consisted of reported intervention. The validated survey by Johanson was used to assess the performance of the lower limbs. Each tested person filled in 3 surveys of the same kind – the first at the beginning of the research project, the second after losing 20 kg of body weight, and the third after 12 months of weight reduction.

Results. There has been a statistically significant decrease in body weight (p=0.002) and BMI (p=0.002) of women surveyed between the specific periods of observation. The pain from the knee joints decreased or was resolved through weight reduction (p=0.004) in the respondents. The participants also started to take less painkillers for knee discomfort (p=0.005). Authors also noted an increase of the walking distance without rest (p=0.01) and less problems while walking upstairs (p=0.004). There was a statistically significant improvement in their self-care for the feet (p=0.003), as well as in the ability to use public transport (p=0.05) or to do shopping (p=0.05). There were no significant differences in the performance of household chores, getting out of bed, using the bath or shower or in need of orthopaedic equipment.

Conclusions. Significant weight reduction in obese women proportionally reduces or relieves knee pain and improves their performance. It reduces the need for using analgesics. Weight reduction in obese people has a significant impact on improving the performance of lower limbs.

-S 2010 Computing walking distances within buildings using the universal circulation network. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 37:628-645 [13] LEE JK, EASTMAN CM, LEE J, KANNALA M, JEONG YS 2010 Computing walking distances within buildings using the universal circulation network. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 37:628-645 [14] SACKS R, KANER I, EASTMAN CM, JEONG YS 2010 The Rosewood experiment - Building information modeling and interoperability for architectural precast facades. Automation in Construction 19:419-432 [15] SMITH DK, TARDIF

] Jacobs J., Śmierć i życie wielkich miast Ameryki , Fundacja Centrum Architektury, Warszawa 2014. [11] Jacobs J., The economy of Cities , Vintage Books, New York 1970 (Kindle edition). [12] Kantarek A.A., O orientacji w przestrzeni miast , Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej, Kraków 2013. [13] Kukiel M., Wojny napoleońskie, Publ. Kurpisz, 2007. [14] Langdon Philip, Within walking distance. Creating livable communities for all, Island Press, Washington 2017. [15] Leśniewski S., Wagram 1809, Wydaw. Bellona, 2003. [16] Lynch K., Obraz Miasta, Archivolta Michał

walking distance. Pilot Study. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2015;83 (1):14-22. DOI: 10.5603/PiAP.2015.0002. 17. Sahni S, Talwar A, Khanijo S, Talwa A. Socioeconomic status and its relationship to chronic respiratory disease. Advances in Respiratory Medicine 2017; 85: 97-108.