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dominance of the Polish language in the whole Upper Silesian region ( Weber 1913 ; GUS 1937 ). During World War II, German authorities encouraged the local population to register on the Volksliste (German People’s List), which was compulsory in some parts of Upper Silesia ( Czapliński 2002 ). After the war, when entire Upper Silesia became part of Poland, the communist authorities decided to eliminate German influence in the region. In the People’s Republic of Poland, population transfers were organised, which resulted in settling Polish people from other regions

workers, 31%. White collar workers employed in indus- try also received only 38% of pre-war wages. Low wages are, however, only one of the factors influencing the con- dition of workers. The most important problem after the war was the in- sufficient provision of food. Especially in 1945 the situation was dramat- ic and almost as bad as during the occupation years when, according to the German Upper Silesian Economic Institute, “Der Pole hungert” (it did not apply only to the workers possessing volksliste). The caloric value of the provisions received by the Polish