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. Toxicol., 61, 2013, 60-68. BRUNO, G., SPARAPANO, G.: Effects of three esca-associated fungi on Vitis vinifera L.: I. Characterization of secondary metabolites in culture media and host responses to the pathogens in calli. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol., 69, 2006, 209-223. CAI, Z., KNORR, D., SMETANSKA, I.: Enhanced anthocyanins and resveratrol production in Vitis vinifera cell suspension culture by indanoyl-isoleucine, Nlinolenoyl- l glutamine and insect saliva. Enzyme Microb. Technol., 50, 2012, 29-34. CAI, Z., RIEDEL, H., SAW, N.M.M.T, MEWIS, I., REINEKE, K., KNORR, D

. 2013. Comparative analyses of stilbenoids in canes of major Vitis vinifera L. cultivars. In Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 61, 2013, no. 47, pp. 11392–11399 LANGCAKE, P. – PRYCE, R. J. 1976. The production of resveratrol by Vitis vinifera and other members of the Vitaceae as a response to infection or injury. In Physiological Plant Pathology, vol. 9, 1976, no. 1, pp. 77–86. LANGCAKE, P. – PRYCE, R. J. 1977. The production of resveratrol and the viniferins by grapevines in response to ultraviolet irradiation. In Phytochemistry, vol. 16, 1977, no

shock in Populus euphratica. In Plant Cell Reports , vol. 30 , 2011, no. 5, pp. 1893-1907, DOI: 10.1007/s00299-011-1096-9 REPKA, V. 2008. Grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) microRNA expression profiling with miRNA bioarrays: indications for an involvement of miRNA in apoptosis and pathogenesis. In Le Bulletin de L'OIV , vol. 81 , 2008, no. 926-927-928, pp. 171-178. REPKA, V. - FISHEROVÁ, I. - ŠILHÁROVÁ, K. 2004. Methyl jasmonate is a potent elicitor of multiple defense responses in grapevine leaves and cell-suspension cultures. In Biologia Plantarum , vol. 48

MITEs on the genome of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.). Genome Biology and Evolution, 1, 75–84. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evp009. Bennetzen JL (2005): Transposable elements, gene creation and genome rearrangement in flowering plants. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, 15, 621–627. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2005.09.010. Bennetzen JL, Wang H (2014): The contributions of transposable elements to the structure, function, and evolution of plant genomes. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 65, 505–530. doi: 10.1146/annurev-arplant-050213-035811. Bock R (2010): The give-and-take of

REFERENCES Akkurt M., Welter L., Maul E., Töpfer R., Zyprian E., 2007 - Development of SCAR markers linked to powdery mildew ( Uncinula necator ) resistance in grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. and Vitis sp.). Mol. Breed. 19 (2), 103-111. Brar S.J.S., Singh Z., Gosal S.S., 1991 - In ovulo embryo culture in seedless grapes ( Vitis vinifera L.). In: Prakash J. and Pierik R.L.M. (Eds), Horticulture - New Technologies and Applications, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Nederlands, 249-254. Damian Doina, Calistru Gh., Savin C., Vasile A., Zaldea G., 2006

Proteomic Insight Into the Molecular Principles of Grapevine Habituation

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to protein microarray analysis was used to examine, for the first time, the molecular mechanisms of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Limberger) habituation. The examination of 2-D maps derived from control and habituated cell culture revealed the presence of 55 protein spots displaying a differential expression pattern. These facts have provide a molecular evidence suggesting that the habituated cells can be used as a model for study of cell differentiation and plant defense mechanisms. Cell death, extra-cellular alkalinization and expression of genes responsible for the formation of the defense-related proteins were analyzed in suspension cultures with hormonal autonomy (habituation). Results obtained using habituated grapevine cells compared with non-habituated cells were different and strongly depended on the concentration of elicitor applied.

A Global Microarray Expression Profile of Grapevine miRNAs Isolated from Cell Suspensions Pre-Treated with Apoptosis Activators

In an attempt to identify novel and apoptosis/pathogen-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs, we performed a robust microarray screening of small RNA population from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Limberger cell suspension exposed to apoptosis activators (e.g. methyl jasmonate) or elicitors (botrycin and cinerein) derived from necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. et Fries. Using a microarray expression profiling approach, we identified 22 miRNAs. We found that a majority of these miRNAs were predicted to target stress/defense-related genes of plants. Of the 22 V. vinifera miRNAs, 11 have sequence conservation in Arabidopsis thaliana but exhibited species-specific developmental and/or stress/defense-related expression patterns. Ten of the miRNAs are highly conserved in other plant species, suggesting that even conserved miRNAs may have different regulatory roles in various species. Our results show that these grapevine miRNAs can be also induced by various apoptosis inducers. Fifty-one potential targets were predicted to the newly identified miRNAs based on sequence complementarity. In addition to miRNAs, we identified 102 other novel endogenous small RNAs in Vitis, indicating that a large number of miRNAs and other small regulatory RNAs are encoded by the Vitis vinifera genome.

References Abuzov M. 2009. Atlas sieviernovo vinograda. Smo–lensk, KFH Pitomnik Publishing, 165 p. [in Rus–sian] Basler P. 2002. Ungespritzte einheimische Tafeltrau–ben. Schweiz. Z. Obst Weinbau 138(7): 169-170. [in German] Clark J.R., Moore J.N. 1999. ‘Neptune’ seedless grape. HortScience 34(7): 1300-1302. Elfving D.C., Dale A., Fisher K.H., Miles N., Tehrani G. 1985. Fruit cultivars. Ontario Min. Agr. Food Publ. 430, 82 p. Hajdu E. 2002. Table grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) breeding and results in Hungary. Int. J. Hort. Sci. 81: 25-29. Hajdu E. 2007. Breeding of

mangrove, Avicennia marine in Richards Bay, SouthAfrica. Environ. Pollut. 127(3): 359-366. Noor M.J., Sultana S., Fatima S., Ahmad M., Zafar M., Sarfraz M., et al., 2015. Retracted Article: Estimation of anticipated performance index and air pollution tolerance index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of Potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution esponse. Environ. Geochem. Health. 37(3): 441-455. Poni S., Galbignani M., Magnanini E., Bernizzoni F., Vercesi A., Gatti M., Merli, M.C., 2014. The isohydric cv. Montepulciano (Vitis vinifera L.) does not

resistance frost of the table grape varieties grown in Stefanesti-Arges vineyard. Scientific Papers. Series B. Horticulture., Vol. LVII, ISSN 2285-5653, 37-40. Dejeu L., Bucur G. M., Damian I. 2013, 120 years of research, education and vitivinicultural production at Pietroasa. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Vol. II, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 89-94. Filimon R.V., Damian D., Filimon R., Rotaru L., 2016. Assessment of consumer preferences on table grapes of new Vitis vinifera L. cultivars. Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova XLIX 3(167):97-110. Indreaş A., Vişan L., 2000