Background/Aim: The management of horizontal root fracture is not straight forward. It depends upon the location of the fracture, mobility and vitality of fractured tooth segment. The goal of treatment is to restore the shape and function of affected tooth.
Case report: This following case report described the conservative management of horizontal root fracture which was also displaced but somehow maintained its vitality. The affected tooth was initially stabilized and followed up in the subsequent appointments for evaluation of vitality that turned out to be vital, thus, preventing any unnecessary intervention.
Conclusions: Horizontal root fractures in the vital teeth should be initially managed conservatively and every effort should be made to preserve the vitality of tooth.
We are very often confronted in dental daily practice with the clinical situations where important loss of hard dental structure is present and direct restoration is required. In these cases, armed odontal direct restauration can be performed, using additional retention systems. The restoration of the coronal part in non-vital teeth has certain specific aspects and one of the most used endodontic anchorage is the metal threaded prefabricated posts. Current techniques and materials allow the dentist to fulfill all the clinical requirements, in terms of resistance to occlusal stress and the esthetic aspect of the restoration.
Profiling of biomarkers of physiological process represents an integrative part in optimisation of diagnostic markers in order to adjust the diagnostic ranges to the potential effects of the local factors such occlusal forces in case of periodontal tissues. The objective of this study was estimation of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22, TNFα and IFNγ concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid samples (GCF) between different groups of teeth. Two hundred fifty-nine systemically healthy non-smokers having at least one vital tooth without restorations, with healthy periodontal tissues, were clinically examined and the GCF sample was retrieved. The cytokine levels were estimated using flow cytometry and compared between central incisors (CI), lateral incisors, canines, first premolars, second premo-lars, first molars and second molars. Cytokine profiles varied between different groups of teeth with tendency of increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines from anterior teeth toward molars. Molars might be considered teeth with natural predisposition for faster bone resorption while the adjustment of diagnostic range of periodontal biomarkers for anterior or posterior teeth should be considered within diagnostic context. Cytokine profiles varied between different groups of teeth with tendency of increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines from anterior teeth toward molars. Molars might be considered teeth with natural predisposition for faster bone resorption while the adjustment of diagnostic range of periodontal biomarkers for anterior or posterior teeth should be considered within diagnostic context.