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This paper presents the design criteria for Visual Cues – visual stimuli that are used in combination with other pedagogical processes and tools in Disruptive Learning interventions in sustainability education – to disrupt learners’ existing frames of mind and help re-orient learners’ mind-sets towards sustainability. The theory of Disruptive Learning rests on the premise that if learners’ frames of mind or frames of reference can be disrupted (in other words, challenged), then learners’ mind-sets can be re-oriented towards sustainability, and indeed learners can be motivated to engage in change agency for sustainability. The use of Visual Cues thus unsettle or challenge learners’ mind-sets, and in doing so, set them on the pathway towards re-orientation in becoming more sustainability oriented, and/or in motivating engagement in sustainability change agency. The findings form part of a broader research study on ESD conducted in a higher education institution in Ireland within an undergraduate degree of teacher education. Kathy Charmaz’ Constructivist Grounded Theory approach guided the entire study, resulting in the articulation of the theory of, and processes within, Disruptive Learning. This paper presents design criteria for Visual Cues that were articulated through a thematic analysis approach from data emerging from reflective diaries, follow-up interviews, audio recordings and observational notes. The findings from this study in respect of design criteria state that Visual Cues must disrupt rather than disturb; must represent (have impressions of) real life contexts, scenarios, practices or events; must provoke controversy; must contain a visual stimulation; and can have a critical question.


This paper describes the results of experiments on detection and recognition of 3D objects in RGB-D images provided by the Microsoft Kinect sensor. While the studies focus on single image use, sequences of frames are also considered and evaluated. Observed objects are categorized based on both geometrical and visual cues, but the emphasis is laid on the performance of the point cloud matching method. To this end, a rarely used approach consisting of independent VFH and CRH descriptors matching, followed by ICP and HV algorithms from the Point Cloud Library is applied. Successfully recognized objects are then subjected to a classical 2D analysis based on color histogram comparison exclusively with objects in the same geometrical category. The proposed two-stage approach allows to distinguish objects of similar geometry and different visual appearance, like soda cans of various brands. By separating geometry and color identification phases, the applied system is still able to categorize objects based on their geometry, even if there is no color match. The recognized objects are then localized in the three-dimensional space and autonomously grasped by a manipulator. To evaluate this approach, a special validation set was created, and additionally a selected scene from the Washington RGB-D Object Dataset was used.


Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual’s oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ²=14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ²=14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ²=8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training

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